tv Politics Public Policy Today CSPAN January 18, 2013 10:30pm-6:00am EST
>> let freedom ring from the mountains of georgia. >> let freedom ring from lookout mountain in tennessee. >> >> from every mountain from every state let freedom ring. >> when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, we allow it to ring from every village, every state, and every city. >> we will be able to speed up that day with all of god's children. black men, white men, everyone can join hands. >> free at last. thank god, oh mighty we're free at last. [applause]
>> our website will have added features, including video from our c-span crew and a visual blog page all at c-span .org. jimmy carter was inaugurated in 1977. he defeated gerald ford. following president carter's swearing in he walked the entire length of the parade route in about 40 minutes. here's his remark from the podium which are about 15 minutes.
>> are you prepared to take the constitutional oath? >> i am. >> place your left hand on the bible and raise your right hand. >> i will to the best of myability >> will to the best of my ability. >> preserve, property and defend. >> the constitution of the united states. >> so help me god. >> so help me god. >> congratulations. [applause]
ceremony, we attest once again to the inner and spiritual strength of our nation. as my high school teacher, miss julia coleman, used to say, "we must adjust to changing times and still hold to unchanging principles." here before me is the bible used in the inauguration of our first president, in 1789, and i have just taken the oath of office on the bible my mother gave me just a few years ago, opened to a timeless admonition from the ancient prophet micah -- "he hath showed thee, o man, what is good, and what doth the lord
require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy god." this inauguration ceremony marks a new beginning, a new dedication within our government, and a new spirit among us all. a president may sense and proclaim that new spirit, but only a people can provide it. two centuries ago, our nation's birth was a milestone in the long quest for freedom. but the bold and brilliant dream which excited the founders of this nation still awaits its consummation. i have no new dream to set forth
today, but rather urge a fresh faith in the old dream. ours was the first society openly to define itself in terms of both spirituality and human liberty. it is that unique self-definition which has given us an exceptional appeal, but it also imposes on us a special obligation to take on those moral duties which, when assumed, seem invariably to be in our own best interests. you have given me a great responsibility--to stay close to you, to be worthy of you, and to
exemplify what you are. let us create together a new national spirit of unity and trust. your strength can compensate for my weakness, and your wisdom can help to minimize my mistakes. let us learn together and laugh together and work together and pray together, confident that in the end we will triumph together in the right. [applause] the american dream endures. we must once again have full
faith in our country--and in one another. i believe america can be better. we can be even stronger than before. let our recent mistakes bring a resurgent commitment to the basic principles of our nation, for we know that if we despise our own government, we have no future. we recall in special times when we have stood briefly, but magnificently, united. in those times no prize was beyond our grasp. but we cannot dwell upon remembered glory. we cannot afford to drift. we reject the prospect of failure or mediocrity or an
inferior quality of life for any person. our government must at the same time be both competent and compassionate. we have already found a high degree of personal liberty, and we are now struggling to enhance equality of opportunity. our commitment to human rights must be absolute, our laws fair, our national beauty preserved, the powerful must not persecute the weak, and human dignity must be enhanced. we have learned that more is not necessarily better, that even our great nation has its
recognized limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all problems. we cannot afford to do everything, nor can we afford to lack boldness as we meet the future. so, together, in a spirit of individual sacrifice for the common good, we must simply do our best. our nation can be strong abroad only if it is strong at home. and we know that the best way to enhance freedom in other lands is to demonstrate here that our democratic system is worthy of emulation. to be true to ourselves, we must be true to others. we will not behave in foreign
places so as to violate our rules and standards here at home, for we know that the trust which our nation earns is essential to our strength. the world itself is now dominated by a new spirit. peoples more numerous and more politically aware are craving, and now demanding, their place in the sun--not just for the benefit of their own physical condition, but for basic human rights. the passion for freedom is on the rise. tapping this new spirit, there can be no nobler nor more ambitious task for america to undertake on this day of a new
beginning than to help shape a just and peaceful world that is truly humane. we are a strong nation, and we will maintain strength so sufficient that it need not be proven in combat--a quiet strength based not merely on the size of an arsenal but on the nobility of ideas. we will be ever vigilant and never vulnerable, and we will fight our wars against poverty,
ignorance, and injustice, for those are the enemies against which our forces can be honorably marshaled. we are a proudly idealistic nation, but let no one confuse our idealism with weakness. because we are free, we can never be indifferent to the fate of freedom elsewhere. [applause] our moral sense dictates a clear-cut preference for those societies which share with us an abiding respect for individual human rights. we do not seek to intimidate, but it is clear that a world
which others can dominate with impunity would be inhospitable to decency and a threat to the well-being of all people. the world is still engaged in a massive armaments race designed to ensure continuing equivalent strength among potential adversaries. we pledge perseverance and wisdom in our efforts to limit the world's armaments to those necessary for each nation's own domestic safety. and we will move this year a step toward our ultimate goal--the elimination of all nuclear weapons from this earth. [applause]
we urge all other people to join us, for success can mean life instead of death. within us, the people of the united states, there is evident a serious and purposeful rekindling of confidence. and i join in the hope that when my time as your president has ended, people might say this about our nation -- that we had remembered the words of micah and renewed our search for humility, mercy, and justice, that we had torn down the barriers that separated those of different race and region and religion, and where there had
been mistrust, built unity, with a respect for diversity, that we had found productive work for those able to perform it, that we had strengthened the american family, which is the basis of our society, that we had ensured respect for the law and equal treatment under the law, for the weak and the powerful, for the rich and the poor, and that we had enabled our people to be proud of their own government once again. i would hope that the nations of the world might say that we had built a lasting peace, based not on weapons of war but on
international policies which reflect our own most precious values. these are not just my goals -- and they will not be my accomplishments, but the affirmation of our nation's continuing moral strength and our belief in an undiminished, ever-expanding american dream. thank you very much. >> here's for from the list of inauguration we found from the academy. polk was in 1845. buchanan inauguration was the first known to be photographed.
during lincoln's second inaugural was the first to have african americans to take part. president george w. bush became the nation's 43rd president on january 20, 2001 after defeating al gore that ended in a supreme court decision in december of that year. the enaugust ration was attended by 3,000 people. this is about a 15 minutes. [applause]
>> are you ready to take the oath? i, george walker bush do solemnly swear, that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. so help me god. congratulations. [applause] ♪
george w. bush. [applause] >> president clinton, distinguished guests and my fellow citizens, the peaceful transfer of authority is rare in history, yet common in our country. with a simple oath, we affirm old traditions and make new beginnings. as i begin, i thank president clinton for his service to our nation.
[applause] and i thank vice president gore for a contest conducted with spirit and ended with grace. [applause] i am honored and humbled to stand here, where so many of america's leaders have come before me, and so many will follow. we have a place, all of us, in a long story -- a story we continue, but whose end we will not see. it is the story of a new world that became a friend and liberator of the old, a story of a slave-holding society that became a servant of freedom, the story of a power that went into the world to protect but not
possess, to defend but not to conquer. it is the american story -- a story of flawed and fallible people, united across the generations by grand and enduring ideals. the grandest of these ideals is an unfolding american promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. americans are called to enact this promise in our lives and in our laws. and though our nation has sometimes halted, and sometimes delayed, we must follow no other course. through much of the last century, america's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations.
our democratic faith is more than the creed of our country, it is the inborn hope of our humanity, an ideal we carry but do not own, a trust we bear and pass along. and even after nearly 225 years, we have a long way yet to travel. while many of our citizens prosper, others doubt the promise, even the justice, of our own country. the ambitions of some americans are limited by failing schools and hidden prejudice and the circumstances of their birth. and sometimes our differences run so deep, it seems we share a continent, but not a country. we do not accept this, and we will not allow it. our unity, our union, is the
serious work of leaders and citizens in every generation. and this is my solemn pledge -- i will work to build a single nation of justice and opportunity. [applause] i know this is in our reach because we are guided by a power larger than ourselves who creates us equal in his image. and we are confident in principles that unite and lead us onward. america has never been united by blood or birth or soil. we are bound by ideals that move us beyond our backgrounds, lift us above our interests and teach us what it means to be citizens. every child must be taught these principles. every citizen must uphold them.
and every immigrant, by embracing these ideals, makes our country more, not less, american. today, we affirm a new commitment to live out our nation's promise through civility, courage, compassion and character. america, at its best, matches a commitment to principle with a concern for civility. a civil society demands from each of us good will and respect, fair dealing and forgiveness. some seem to believe that our politics can afford to be petty because, in a time of peace, the but the stakes for america are
never small. if our country does not lead the cause of freedom, it will not be led. if we do not turn the hearts of children toward knowledge and character, we will lose their gifts and undermine their idealism. if we permit our economy to drift and decline, the vulnerable will suffer most. we must live up to the calling we share. civility is not a tactic or a sentiment. it is the determined choice of trust over cynicism, of community over chaos. and this commitment, if we keep it, is a way to shared accomplishment. america, at its best, is also courageous. our national courage has been clear in times of depression and war, when defending common dangers defined our common good. now we must choose if the example of our fathers and mothers will inspire us or condemn us. we must show courage in a time
of blessing by confronting problems instead of passing them on to future generations. together, we will reclaim america's schools, before ignorance and apathy claim more young lives. we will reform social security and medicare, sparing our children from struggles we have the power to prevent. and we will reduce taxes, to recover the momentum of our economy and reward the effort and enterprise of working americans. we will build our defenses beyond challenge, lest weakness invite challenge. we will confront weapons of mass destruction, so that a new century is spared new horrors. the enemies of liberty and our country should make no mistake
america remains engaged in the world by history and by choice, shaping a balance of power that favors freedom. we will defend our allies and our interests. we will show purpose without arrogance. we will meet aggression and bad faith with resolve and strength. and to all nations, we will speak for the values that gave our nation birth. america, at its best, is compassionate. in the quiet of american conscience, we know that deep, persistent poverty is unworthy of our nation's promise. and whatever our views of its cause, we can agree that children at risk are not at fault.
abandonment and abuse are not acts of god, they are failures of love. and the proliferation of prisons, however necessary, is no substitute for hope and order in our souls. where there is suffering, there is duty. americans in need are not strangers, they are citizens, not problems, but priorities. and all of us are diminished when any are hopeless. government has great responsibilities for public safety and public health, for civil rights and common schools. yet compassion is the work of a nation, not just a government. and some needs and hurts are so
deep they will only respond to a mentor's touch or a pastor's prayer. church and charity, synagogue and mosque lend our communities their humanity, and they will have an honored place in our plans and in our laws. many in our country do not know the pain of poverty, but we can listen to those who do. and i can pledge our nation to a goal -- when we see that wounded traveler on the road to jericho, we will not pass to the other side. america, at its best, is a place where personal responsibility is valued and expected.
encouraging responsibility is not a search for scapegoats, it is a call to conscience. and though it requires sacrifice, it brings a deeper fulfillment. we find the fullness of life not only in options, but in commitments. and we find that children and community are the commitments that set us free. our public interest depends on private character, on civic duty and family bonds and basic fairness, on uncounted, unhonored acts of decency which give direction to our freedom. sometimes in life we are called to do great things. but as a saint of our times has said, every day we are called to do small things with great love. the most important tasks of a democracy are done by everyone. i will live and lead by these principles -- to advance my convictions with civility, to pursue the public interest with courage, to speak for greater justice and compassion, to call for responsibility and try to live it as well.
in all these ways, i will bring the values of our history to the care of our times. what you do is as important as anything government does. i ask you to seek a common good beyond your comfort, to defend needed reforms against easy attacks, to serve your nation, beginning with your neighbor. i ask you to be citizens -- citizens, not spectators, citizens, not subjects, responsible citizens, building communities of service and a nation of character.[applause] americans are generous and
strong and decent, not because we believe in ourselves, but because we hold beliefs beyond ourselves. when this spirit of citizenship is missing, no government program can replace it. when this spirit is present, no wrong can stand against it. after the declaration of independence was signed, virginia statesman john page wrote to thomas jefferson -- we know the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?'' much time has passed since jefferson arrived for his inauguration. the years and changes accumulate.
but the themes of this day he would know -- our nation's grand story of courage and its simple dream of dignity. we are not this story's author, who fills time and eternity with his purpose. yet his purpose is achieved in our duty, and our duty is fulfilled in service to one another. never tiring, never yielding, never finishing, we renew that purpose today, to make our country more just and generous, to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life. this work continues. this story goes on. and an angel still rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm. god bless you all, and god bless america.
>> up next, senate historian don ritchie gave a historical perspective on inaugurations describing how various treated -- and that we will show presidential inauguration speeches from the past 65 years. >> i barack hussein obama do solemnly swear -- >> this weekend, the 57th annual presidential inauguration presidentgins his -- hob obama begins his second term.
and then monday, the public inaugural ceremonies with the swearing in at noon eastern on the us capital. live all day coverage begins at 7:00 a.m. eastern time from c- span, c-span, and c-span.org. throughout the day, join the conversation, on the phone, on facebook, and on twitter. x throughout inauguration day, our website will have added features. video-on-demand of the day's major events, and visual blog page of behind the scenes photos. all at c-span.org. the public inauguration ceremony for president obama will be monday on the steps of the
capital. that also is the martin luther king holiday. now, senate historian don ritchie gave a historical perspective on inaugurations describing how various treated the day and how so help me god became part of the ceremony.he also talks about vice president andrew johnson's drunken inaugural address. this is about an hour.>> thank you very much. that is a hard act to follow. i will try my best. we are about to have an inauguration on monday. the first question that comes to people's minds often in inauguration as they are standing or sitting in the cold waiting on the ceremonies to begin is we have
separation of powers in this country. how is it that the president of the united states is being sworn into office on the steps of the capitol t legislative branch of the government. how did this all come about? it's not in the constitution. if you read the constitution it's sparse. it tells you the date and time the president is to be sworn in and the exact words of the oath but it doesn't say anything else. but yet we have this long two centuries of tradition built up around presidential inaugurations. it comes down to which came first, the chicken or the egg. and the fact is in 1979 when this brand new government was getting started the first part of government to meet was the congress. it was supposed to meet on march 4 but congress has a hard time sometimes establishing a quorum so it wasn't then they could do business. the first order of business was to count electoral ballots. it was relatively easy it was unanimous that george washington
had been elected president. the first thing they had to do was notify washington he needed to come to take his oath of office. it took a little while for presidents of the united states in those days to get to wherever the federal government was so they had a couple of weeks to work things out. well the first thing they did was to write an oath for everybody else to take including the vice president of the united states. congress write it is oath that every other person who works for the government from military to judges to the legislators. that is an oath written by congress and it's changed over the centuries. but the oath the president takes is unique. it's in the constitution and it's never changed. so the question was where are we going to swear in the president of the united states? well congress is meeting in federal hall on wall street.
and it was a nice building. the house had the bigger room downstairs and the senate had the smaller room upstairs. and they said the president should be sworn in in our chamber. that was fine except everybody in new york and anybody who could get to new york wanted to see george washington sworn in. they couldn't invite everybody in. but upstairs they had a balcony. you come upstairs and we'll have the ceremony here and washington can take his oath out on the balcony. those decisions happened because they were logical. ever since then presidents of the united states have been taking their oath more often than not outside and the senate has taken the lead in running the inaugural ceremonies. vice president adams was the president of the senate at the
time and he was a useful player in all of this because he had been the u.s. minister to england. one of the big questions came up there are no seats up here in the senate chamber. there are no seats downstairs. in parliament they have to stand up because there aren't enough seats and that adds to the drama of the day and the members can stand up for the ceremony. fortunately we have seats for the house and senate on the reviewing board. but when washington arrived there was a lot of co-motion. he was welcomed, his barge came across the hudson river. there were parades and fire works and activities. and since the parades were before and not after, washington came to the senate chamber, the house members came upstairs and then he stepped out on to the platform and there was no supreme court in those days, there was
no chief justice of the supreme court but the chancellor of the state of new york then gave the either of office. and so here is president washington just been sworn in. the crowd cheers and then he comes back into the senate chamber and delivers an address. and there is no mention in the constitution of an inaugural address. but presidents of the united states have been giving inaugural addresses ever since president washington led the procession. one of the observers said washington who was the great strong man of american history was trembling while giving the address. he was inside so the people outside didn't hear what was going on. but of course washington's inaugural address was reprinted in newspapers all across the country shortly after that. then in 1793 after washington's first term was over, he was
elected to a second term. they were in philadelphia at this point. and so at this point washington gave the shortest inaugural address, relatively brief remarks, but still following on to this tradition. and still the u.s. congress was hosting this institution. now one of the strange things about the inaugurations and one that leads to controversy is that as i mentioned that the constitution writes out the oath of office. and one thing that the constitution does not say is concluding the inaugural oath with so help me god. and yet most presidents say so help me god. and part of that is because there was a tradition, there was sort of a folklore that developed that washington said so help me god. and we historians have been looking for whether washington
said or didn't say so help me god. we're not sure about this. one of the accounts given by washington irving who was five-year-old at the time of washington inauguration. but years later he gave his remembrance that washington said so help me god. we just don't know. it's up to the president of the united states to say whatever he wants. most presidents in the 19th century did not repeat the oath, they just said i do. starting about the 1880's presidents began to say so help me god. it's interesting to me that the chief justice who swears them in says so help me god. if you're going to be a strict interpreter of the constitution it's not there. the president can say it. you wonder why the chief justice puts this in. it's become tradition. and tradition is even more important than constitutional structure in this process.
but it's become a point of controversy. i should say that chief justices of the united states have been known to fumble the oath of office. it's different than all the others. and one reason why they do fumble is they are used to giving the oath but it's not the same oath. the oath we take as staff of the senate or military offices or the judges take is the oath written by congress. and that oath does end with so help me god. and in fact, the military oath that washington's troops took during the revolution ended with so help me god. so it was natural for washington to have said it t at that occasion although not required. i will say in defense of chief justice roberts he is not the first to get the words a bit confused. william howard taft swore in
hoover in 1929 and that ceremony was carried over the radio . and a little girl wrote in to justice taft and said you got the words wrong. and i was listening to it and that's not the order of the words. and he wrote back and said i'm sure i got them right. and of course the news media played the tapes and discovered he reversed some of the words in the order. it does not make a difference if the cheer justice gets a word out of word or skips a word. the presidents in the 19th century and even hoover in 1929 just said i do in this process and that is certainly appropriate as well. we move down to washington, d.c. the first inauguration is taking place and it's the first time there is a change in party from the federalists to the new republicans or democratic republicans who saw themselves more as the party of the people.
and thomas jefferson was going to be inaugurated and he did not want a lat of fold all with his inauguration. jefferson stripped away a lot of the formalities of the presidency that built up. he is about where the library of congress stands today. and he just walks across the street. and he's dressed fairly casually. and he goes to the senate chamber. why? because it happened to be the largest chamber in the capitol at the time. the house was meeting in a room that is occupied by a single senator just to give you some sense of proportions there because the house wing of the capitol hadn't been built yet. and thomas jefferson went to the inauguration. he was sworn in by his cousin
john marshall and he was sworn in with byrd, one of his political opponents. it must have been a tense inauguration. then he delivered his inaugural address in a voice that was so low that most people in the room, and the room was absolutely packed, most people couldn't hear what jefferson was saying. thomas jefferson as president for eight years delivered two public speeches in the entire eight years of his presidency. one was his first inaugural address, and the second was his second inaugural address. washington and adams went to give their state of the union addresses in person. but jefferson thought this was too much like the king going to parliament. he was going to strip that away.
you set precedent from doing things and from thomas jefferson on presidents did not go to congress to deliver their state of the union address. they sent it up for a clerk to read. they missed an opportunity to take some leadership over the legislative branch. it's not until 1913 that wilson gets elected president and he says there is nothing to prevent me from going up there. this will be a great way for me to present my legitimate program to congress. wilson starts going in person. he is delighted he thought of something roosevelt didn't think of. ever since wilson, almost all presidents of the united states have taken the opportunity to go to congress in person. jefferson, as i say, was trying to down play a lot of the ceremony but he also understood the need for an inauguration. he understood the purpose of it. after a decisive election, it was one of the most divisive where everyone has to choose sides and the country is split up t inauguration is the moment we come back together again.
this is not a presidential candidate in front of us. this is the person who was elected. this is the person who is going to lead this country for the next four years. we need to put aside the election and heal the wounds of this election. and so in his election jefferson says we are all federalist now, we are all republicans. we are all americans coming together and we are going to work together because the hope that every president has in his inaugural address. but that is one of the main reasons for having this great ceremony each time is to put a cap on the end of the election and to bring this nation back
together again for the president's -- for the next president's term. well, now you've got the government in washington. they've established a certain amount of precedence. by the times james is inaugurated the capitol -- james madison was inaugurated there, both of his terms of president. james monroe would have been inaugurated in the old statutory hall, the house of representatives at the time. he would have been inaugurated there except the british burned the building down in 1814. british troops marched across and came down maryland avenue, burned down the capitol and white house and most other public buildings in washington, d.c. so they could not hold an inauguration back in the house chamber. instead they had built a temporary capitol across the street that became known as the old brick capitol and it stood where the supreme court stands today. it wasn't big enough to
accommodate the crowds so he is inaugurated outside on the steps. it was a good tradition but it didn't immediately catch on because inaugurations in those days were held on march 4. if you think the weather is bad in january, stay around until march. we had a history of bad weather on march 4 so most presidents preferred to be inaugurated indoors. andrew jackson when he becomes president. adams is in the old house chamber. andrew jackson is the man of the people. he's the great hero. he fight that is last battle at new orleans we're about to have
the buy centennial of. and he draws a very large crowd to washington, d.c. when he becomes president in 1829. so he stands outside on the steps of the capitol. and that begins a tradition from andrew jackson to jimmy carter of presidents of the united states standing on the east front steps of the capitol. if you've been to the capitol, the capitol's primary entrance, it's major stairs are the east front facing to us the supreme court and the library of congress. people think the other side is the front of the capitol. it has no back. because nobody wants an office on the back of the capitol. looking down the mall when is magnificent didn't look anything like that in the 19th century that whole west front wasn't established. so inaugurations were done on the east front.
but that involved building a platform. because it got bigger and bigger because you were accommodating more and more people. in the 20th century you had to accommodate all the media and everybody else. so they not only built a platform for the president to take his oath on, but they had to build a huge platform across from it for the media. and it got so big in fact that anybody who wanted to see the inauguration couldn't stand behind it because it blocked your view. you had to stand on the side to see. they had to start building this in september before the election and that took up all the parking places. in those days members of congress used to park out there. they didn't like the idea they lost their parking places from september to january. the joint committee on the inauguration which hosts the inauguration decided to move the inauguration in 1981 to the
west front of the capitol. and this creates one of the great myths about inaugurations. and i guarantee you will read it in at least one newspaper outlet at some point during this inauguration. and somebody is going to say the inauguration was held on the west front of the capitol because since ronald reagan was president because he was a man of the west he wanted to face to the west as president. and he picked that side. now the problem with this is that the joint committee on the inauguration picked that site in june of 1980 and ronald reagan was nominated by his party until july 1980. the platform was under construction by the time the election was held in november. if jimmy carter had been re- elected he would have been sworn in on the west front.
ronald reagan was smart enough to realize that he could take possession of this even though he did not order of this or choose this, he put it into his inaugural address. i am the first president to be looking west. i am looking out towards the pacific. he took ownership of that move from the east front to the west front even though he was not the person to choose it. this is an important lesson. ever since george washington came to the capitol, congress has run the inaugurations. that part has been done by the congress. they start a year in advance, long before they know who is going to be nominated or elected.
they start to make the plans, they pick a theme for the inauguration, they build the platform, they print the tickets, they get everything under way so that when somebody is elected in november, they can get everything done between november and january. for long periods in american history, the inauguration was on march 4. in 1933, the constitution was amended with the 20th amendment which moved the inauguration up. now congress begins on january 3. the president is sworn in on january 20th. usually, the joint committee is chaired by the chairman of the senate rules committee.
it is cochaired by the speaker and it is done jointly between the two houses. traditionally, the senate has taken the lead and is quite a bit of that. they work with the staff of about 14 people. they have been dealing with this over the last year. there is a second inaugural committee and that is when somebody is elected president, the first thing they have to do is appoint their own inaugural committee. after the president leaves the congress, everything is taken over by the president's committee. they're in charge of the parade, they have a staff of 107 people. how come the congress is working with such a small staff and the president is working with such a large staff? everything we do with the capitol is paid by the government.
once the president leaves, his committee has to pay for everything. they pay for all the things related to the parade and to the ball. they're raising the funds for private -- to try to underwrite what is going on. i mentioned the ronald reagan gets a lot of credit for moving the inauguration when he did not move the inauguration. but he did move the inauguration four years later. that was in 1985 when the weather was really fall in washington. it was below 7 degrees, it was a bitter cold day. the reagan white house, the night before looking at the forecast, thought it was cruel and unusual punishment to make people sit outside. they called the chairman of the rules committee and chairman of the inaugural committee and they said, we think it should be moved inside to the rotunda.
he thought the best thing to do was to call his counterparts and that was tip o'neill and the congressional telephone operator tracked down the speaker in a bar when he was watching a basketball game and he said, the president wants to move his inauguration and the speaker said, it is his inauguration he should have a where he wants it. and they moved it inside. even though there was a desire of people to see this, most people saw on television. in 2009, but we were talking about the inauguration and someone said, if the weather is bad, we will have to move it inside. the architect of the capitol said, i would be impeached. there was a blizzard going on went william howard taft was inaugurated but they had a completely outside ceremony.
it poured rain when herbert hoover rode down from the white house to the capitol, but they rode in an open car. a lot of inaugurations -- john f. kennedy had a blizzard the night before his inauguration. students from local university came down to shovel snow. anytime you talk to anybody who went to kennedy's inauguration, the first thing i talk about is the weather. it is the one thing that we cannot predict. we have this situation with the president being sworn in, but what about the vice president?
it used to be there was a tradition that the vice president at his own inauguration. when the congress and the presidency is to begin their terms on march 4, the first thing that happened was that the senate and house would need to swear in their new members. the first thing they had to do was swear in their vice- president, who is the president of the senate. for a long time, a century, presidents of the united states used to go to the senate chamber to watch their vice-president be sworn in. the senate is to give the vice president a chance to deliver his own address. can you would imagine vice president biden getting the opportunity to give his own address? his vice president was andrew johnson, who who became the war governor of tennessee.
poor johnson arrived at the capitol suffering from the flu. a helpful senate clerk poured him a shot of whiskey. and then another. and then another. he gave them a completely inebriated inaugural address. lincoln was mortified. i unfortunately for johnson, it sets a public image of the andrew johnson. another burly disastrous vice- presidential inaugural address was calvin coolidge as vice- president.
he used his address to tell the senate how they should operate. it set him off on a bad -- starting in 1937, that is when the congress started before the president. now president and vice presidents are sworn outside on the steps. the vice president lost his chance to give an inaugural address. there was one exception in that long tradition of the inauguration speech held at the capitol. that was in 1945 when franklin roosevelt was being sworn in for a fourth time. franklin roosevelt, his third inauguration was done at the capitol, but his fourth one was in the middle of world war ii. he felt this was not the inopportune time to have an
elaborate inauguration. he decided on his own to move the inauguration to the south front of the capital. the joint committee was not happy with that decision. the president of the united states can decide above and beyond the date and the time everything else is tradition and can be changed. we reverted back to holding inaugurations at the capitol. we moved them from the east front to the west front and the crowd has been getting bigger and bigger. one reason on the west front is that you can accommodate more people. if you look at the photographs of the last several inaugurations, you can measure the crowd by how far it goes back. when ronald reagan was sworn in,
the crowds went back to a block beyond the reflecting pool. with each inauguration, at the crowd gets a little bit further back. until 2009. there were so many people, they went all the way back to the washington monument. there were least 1.5 million people crowded onto the mall. one of the coldest days in washington. yet it was a nice atmosphere on the mall. but the most remarkable things, but there was not a single arrest made that entire day of anybody involved in the inaugural proceedings. they do need to have a lot of medical assistance because people standing outside for that long, there is always somebody was going to collapse. they bring in trailers with doctors and nurses to be able to treat. despite the fact that we have increased security, it was a very peaceful day. not everybody always agrees with
an inauguration. there are always dissenters. the secret service and police reserve spaces outside along the parade route for groups that they called the first amendment groups. you have the right to peacefully demonstrate and to speak out and to assemble. i can recall some inaugurations during the vietnam war where there were demonstrations and protests regardless of what the assigned areas were along the way. everybody, from the president to his opponents, everybody sees some importance and the ceremonies involved. the other change that has happened, by the way, is that more people get to see it who are not in washington.
in the 19th century, you read about it in the newspaper. starting in the 1920's, you could listen on the radio. starting in the 1940's, you could watch it on television. now it is web cast around the world. the audience for the inauguration is enormous. that is an important moment for the president because it is his moment to speak to the entire country and to the entire world. inaugural addresses tend to be more eloquent and they tend not to be as specific as state of the union message. the state of the union message is a laundry list. i would like this, this, and this from you. lincoln's was carved on the wall of his monument.
john f. kennedy's is particularly memorable. other addresses have not risen to that level. and then the question comes about second inaugurations. the big excitement is for the first inauguration. been why should they do it? why do we need all this ceremony? we should go back to thomas jefferson. it is still an important moment. if you looked at recent history, less than half of our presidents have the opportunity to have the second inauguration. the ones who do often have a clearer sense of what it is they want to accomplish. when they're coming into office, they want everybody to love them. after four years, there may --
they have a much better sense of what their administration is about. lincoln's first inauguration, he is begging people not to fight this war. the second inauguration, how are we going to appeal the nation? another second inauguration that is memorable as franklin roosevelt. in 1933, franklin roosevelt did not know what the new deal was going to do. by 1937, franklin roosevelt knew what the new deal was about. his second inaugural address was much more specific. one-third of the nation still ill fed and ill clothed. the mission needed to be continued. second inaugurations are much more pointed as far as the president is concerned.
what should you look for on this inauguration. it is going to be a coming together. it is going to be the legislative branch hosting the executive branch. large numbers of the diplomatic corps will be up on the platform. huge numbers of the public will be there to see what is going on. the fact that congress continues to hold these inaugurations is a sign of this coming back together. national unity, this moment of national unity and we suspend all of the political fight and we swear in this person who is going to lead us for the next four years. i never like to predict the future. the only thing i can say, monday's inaugural address will end the way i will end right
now, which is thank you, god bless you, and god bless america. [applause] i have been asked to open the floor up for questions. >> i am a history major. i was wondering as a historian, how do feel when politicians misinterpret the philosophies of the founding fathers? what do think the founding fathers would think of the government today? >> everybody seems to think they know exactly what james madison had in mind. thomas jefferson was not at the constitutional convention. he felt left out of that.
we have a lot of people who were convinced. even the founding fathers were not absolutely certain. there are a lot of things in the constitution that came about as compromises. it bothers me a bit when everybody says, this is what the founding fathers meant. we historians are not certain what the founding fathers meant. we have to make a good-faith effort. we go to the federalist papers and their diaries. you ask about what they would think about the government today. they would be surprised at about how much the government still resembles the government drafted. the u.s. senate has every power that was given to a by the constitution in 1789. almost every other government in the world has taken power away from the upper house. the u.s. senate and the u.s.
house retain exactly the powers they had. the presidency has grown, but they thought the presidency needed to be a strong institution. that is the reason they rallied behind george washington. what would astonish them is not the functions of the government, it is the size of the government. and the size of the country. i think it would take away their breath. there would be astonished at the salaries. i think they would go back, noting that our constitution's has only been amended 27 times 11 of those amendments for by the very first congress. >> thank you for coming here today.
the jcc or the pic? >> i am more loyal to the jcc. we call them the brigadoon committee. they go away and they reappear every four years. they began a year in advance and then they start working their way through this process. i have been to a lot of the joint meetings. it is like planning d-day. it is a phenomenal practice and they do really well. to give credit to the president's committee, they do not have anywhere near as much time. they hit the ground running. people who are running the second inauguration are the same people who ran his first. they know the ropes.
it will be hard for the next president who comes again. the one thing they all find in the end is that there is an enormous demand for tickets. the matter how many tickets you print, there is greater demand beyond that. trying to satisfy the needs of all the people there. they have tried to accommodate the crowds by putting them very large screens along the mall and sound system so that you can see and hear things. they promise to be an adequate number of porta-potties. >> my name is tyler from the university of san diego. how was this inauguration going to be different from the first inauguration? what can we expect to hear from him during his address? >> it will not be as big. it is not running anywhere near
as big as it was four years ago. that is par for the course for second inaugurations. they do expect the crowd will be larger than the average crowd. it will be very hard to me that 1.5 million from before that. for what the president says, my suspicion is that to the second time around, at president has a much better sense of what they can do a much want to do. i suspect this will be much more specific goals as to where he wants to lead us. it will be interesting to see what he has to say. i have not spoken to his speech writers. >> my name is kimberly. i am interested and knowing and hearing about what you think the most significant development is in the history of the
inaugurations. >> the media developments, the fact that inaugurations are now so internationally broadcast is really the most important part of how they have changed over time. when you think about -- everybody wanted to see george washington, but there were not that many people who could get to new york. even andrew jackson, by the time you get to railroads, people were shocked by the large number of people who came to see andrew jackson. you can watch this worldwide, you can sit at your computer. that is the most significant change. >> i had the pleasure of meeting
you on the senate floor. ever since that day, i've had the same question going on in my mind. he came out with a book defending the filibuster. we wanted to know how exactly you feel on the filibuster because throughout all of our experiences, we've only heard by the filibuster should no longer be used. >> it is interesting. there is the division between political scientists and historians. what is wrong with it and how can be fixed? the job of the historian is to let the system and say, how did it get this way?
we tend to be a little bit more tolerant and less active in suggesting changes. i did an oral history with a former parliamentarian and he said the rules of this and are perfect. if they change every one of them, at the rules of the senate will be perfect. the senators have exclusive control over writing their own rules. if they want to change them, they will change into effect whenever their circumstances are. the senate is a frustrating and cumbersome organization. it has been that way since 1789. one of the first senators complained that somebody was trying to talk a bill to death. it is a tactic that has developed. the constitution said each house can write their own rules. the house is a very big body and to get any kind of control, they had to write the rules so that the majority can prevail.
as long as the majority sticks together, they did not have to talk to the minority, and they usually do not. you come to the senate and the rules of the senate had given much more muscle to the minority. sometimes is the minority party and sometimes it is the minority faction and sometimes it is one single senator. that has created some balance between these two bodies. it is easier if you are a strong majority leader and a strong speaker in the house to ramrod or program. every senator majority leader is under a lot of burden to get this uncooperative organization to work together. take a look at this last congress. they have to forge bipartisan compromises.
and so they did, the senate was able to pass a farm bill, a highway bill, a post office bill, and fiscal cliff. and the house, which is supposed to be able to operate more efficiently, they did not pass any of those things. only the fiscal cliff because the speaker said, everybody can vote on it. the reason is because they have majority rule, people look on as a sign of weakness if the speaker of the house has to go to the minority parties for support. the farm bill did not pass, the housing bill did not pass. even though those are generally supported and people are waiting for the farm bill to pass.
this filibuster did not create the budget gridlock. i am not sure. there are a lot of things that the senators are going to try to work out. they will see some modifications. i do not think they will be hugely drastic. i do not think the filibuster is going to go away. they will try to get over some of the speed bumps in the process. you have a terrific professor. his interview is on the senate website. >> i am majoring in politics. is it reasonable to believe president obama's second term
will be different to his first even though the same crisis still exists? >> the one thing you can say about a second terms is that they're full of things that are totally unpredicted. you would think about point that he was completely in charge. the first thing he did was to ask for increasing the size of the supreme court. that divided the democratic party. he got much less support from congress during his second term. and then the war started. none of that could have been predicted the moment he took the oath of office. richard nixon took the oath of office after winning a huge
victory in 1972. in 1973, he was on top of the world. a year and a half later, he was resigning. a lot of things you cannot predict that will happen. it is how well a president can respond. you hope that presidents are much more control of what is going on and they can respond quickly. the circumstances are going to be beyond their knowledge at this stage of the game. i'm afraid i cannot predict. second terms have not been productive as first terms. ever since the 20th amendment, the president cannot run again. he can obviously put his support behind somebody, and that will presumably be a strength. but politicians and members of congress are all calculating on that. the president is not going to be on the ballot with than the next time around.
it remains to be seen, in other words. >> i study economics and marketing. with the change in time and the change in culture, i feel that we view the inaugural address as a grand media spectacle instead of focusing on the credibility of the oath taken by the president. do you see it as a spectacledo e out? people coming and having fun there? or is it taken seriously? >> thomas jefferson trying to make it not a spectacle, but it has always been that way from the beginning. there is a point in any civic life where you need have spectacle. the person that understood that was ronald reagan.
he spent his career in hollywood and he had a sense of showmanship along the way. the first time i saw him was on the steps of the capital in 1980 when he came to film a television commercials for the republican candidates for congress. and he was the only one that remain in character, paying attention to the speaker troubled bank. everyone else reverted to their normal state. this guy will be tough to beat. as i said, he took possession of his inaugural by being the first one on the west front. it is a huge amount of spectacle in celebration that worked really hard for the president as a candidate. but what did the president actually say during the
inauguration? the other thing history remembers is what the weather was like that day. and they are looking for a moment in the weather. i can't imagine how many i have read without dark and gray was, but just as the president began to speak, a ray of light came through indicating there was a vote for the future. we are looking for a hope for the future for the next four years. there is substance to it, but there is a lot of partying that goes a long as well. >> i would like to ask a question regarding legacy. you mentioned and jackson was a man of the people. given the great deal of support that president obama had received in the 2009 inauguration, what will we expect to hear from him that might define or establish his legacy on monday? >> a very good point, residents
of the united states can't campaign again, but they campaign for history. they get very conscious of their role in history, what will they be remembered for? it is interesting, the president that either did not get a second term or whose second term was considered disastrous often wind up campaigning even harder. some of our presidents have been great ex-president, working hard to establish that kind of historical legacy. i think president obama will use that opportunity to try to find what it is and how you want people to think of them not just now, but in the future. and king has just had a monument built to him. 50 years ago, 1963, king gave his speech on the steps of the
lincoln memorial. there will be some connection to that in the process because this is the fulfillment of what he looked for. but what is left, what needs to be done? it is part of the president's thinking. we always get king's birthday off and the presidential inaugural off. why couldn't they have bet on tuesday? we question is, why didn't have that on sunday? we never have a formal outdoor ceremony on sunday. the sense is that presidents will be sworn in privately on
sunday but the ceremony is held on monday. it is a wonderful coincidence that he is being -- it is being held on martin luther king's birthday. >> we have had speakers talk about the current polarization of congress. i am interested to know, what do you think about the polarization of congress? how can we bridge the gap going forward? >> i think one of the reasons it is polarized is that the political parties have changed dramatically in the last 30 years. in 1976, both parties were internally divided. each party had a liberal and conservative wing. you had some republicans that are more liberal than most of the democrats. every vote was bipartisan because they voted to try to get people in the middle to swing their way back and forth. political scientists think it is terrible.
it should be more like parliamentary parties. i would say be where what you ask for because you will actually get it. both political parties have become much more internally cohesive and they're much more like parliamentary parties right now. the reason for this is the southern states migrated from the democratic party to the republican party. that made the republican party more conservative than the democratic party more liberal. the party leaders worked very hard to keep their conferences together. that means there is less middle ground to a pullover. in those governments, the parties face each other and they yell at each other. they're quite rude to each other.
theon't expect that from u.s. congress. they have not evolved to meet this sort of situation so we have to face the new reality. much of the polarization is the external because of the people that get elected. >> my question to you, we are a nation separated with church and state. what are your thoughts of the bible and using the word god and history? >> not only did washington have a bible, we still use his bible for some inaugurations. but after his inauguration, the congress voted to have a church service and then went across to the chapel.
there was argument because not everybody was episcopalian but they went ahead and went to it. would that be a violation of the first amendment? there wasn't a first amendment until 1889. it was what he and his colleagues felt was appropriate on this occasion. presidents choose what to do in since franklin roosevelt, presidents have usually gone to a church service before their inauguration and it is personal to them. members of congress will choose either a family bible or historical bible. there was thomas jefferson's copy of the kuran. hindus were sworn in in congress. so help me god is another issue. there is probably no problem with the president saying that, but was the chief justice? i am sure every president would
say that regardless of what the chief justice had to say. >> i attended miami dade college. what led you to be head historian and what is your favorite part about being one? >> i became a historian because i like political history. it is something i stumbled into, i was writing a biography of a man and discovered to my surprise that he had done a very long oral history, 700 pages. the person i was writing about had been dead for 10 years and he had been telling me about his childhood, his life, and he left out any mention of his
family. either his wife for the messy divorce. he did not mention his children or the income tax cases. i was able to verify pretty much everything he had said, but i needed to know more. they started interviewing his widow, his children, the person that prosecuted him, and i got to interview his psychiatrist. it changed the nature of my research and made my book much more interesting. the senate created the historic office in 1975. i have been doing oral history since the senate staff in 1976. explaining the arcane rules of the senate, sitting down with staff directors.
and you can evaluate the various centers, i recently interviewed a man that spent 22 years as a staff member. asking which was harder. been chief of staff was much harder because you wake up worrying about things. i had a chief of staff that was doing that for me. and being able to put it out, which is a throw to me when i see a historian citing. we used a lot of interviews and i get a great sense of pride at any time i come across in ". i am glad it is there for people to use.
[applause] >> those are the women whose stories and feel close enough to connect with. many of the women of in the higher floors, on the state floor, they seem like characters from a wonderful story because it was such a long time ago. you're reading about it in books. to be in their presence seems a little disconnected. the first lady's on the ground
floor that i remember, i remember their real stories. i can picture their lives in an incredible way that makes me think about their challenges and struggles and how they use the space. >> the first ladies, their private and public lives. the original series for television. first ladies of -- influence and image. season one begins presidents' day at 9:00 p.m. on c-span, c- span radio, and c-span.org. >> now, a discussion on the presidents made an attempt by president obama. this is 40 minutes. host: bill adair is editor of politifact. thank you for being here this morning. politifact has dug into
president obama's campaign promises, what he was able to accomplish during his first term. you rate him as having over 500 promises. is that a lot? guest: it seemed like a lot to us. we decided to apply the politifact approach, which we use for fact checking, to promise checking to verify what an elected official has done in terms of keeping his or her promises. we started with the obameter, using a meter to do journalism, through journalism, and then summarize it with a rating. we went about collecting president obama's promises from the 2008 campaign, and, indeed, more than 500. there was a point where i think we all wished john mccain had won because he made a few -- he made a lot fewer promises. we took the 500, and for the past but for years, in a product that i think is
unprecedented in american journalism, we have been following them, calling people, tracking these things, digging into the budget, and really coming up with the definitive report card on how president obama has done in his first term. host: here is the obameter from politifact. 47% of promises kept, the total in the category for those pledges being kept or even in the works is 72%, 73%. guest: it is really a surprise, i think. it is hard to compare to anything because we did not apply the same methodology to previous presidents. but i have got to say, when we saw over the holidays that it was that high, we were really struck that, particularly in an era of dysfunction and gridlock
in congress, that president obama had fulfilled or at least partially fulfilled so many -- as you said, 73%. we will talk more about why that is, but i think if you talk to experts who have done this on a smaller scale with previous presidents, they say presidents often set promises they cannot keep, so it is unusual that a majority of promises might be kept. the remarkable thing here is that there are so many promises and that they were so specific. in an era of such transparency and when it is so easy for journalists to look things up, we can readily find what was kept and what was broken. host: bill adair, editor of politifact. if you would like to join the conversation, here are the
numbers to call -- host: we're looking at promises made in the obama administration. what counts as a promise kept? what counts as a promise broken? guest: we were inventing a new form of journalism. the beauty of the obameter is you can look things up by subject, by reading. a lot of critics like to focus on the things that we call promises broken. we had to define what was a promise kept and what was a promise broken. how did we define a promise? we defined it promised as a guarantee of prospective action that was verifiable, then we read it typically into one of two ratings. in the work that there was some
sort of progress toward fulfilling or stalled if there was a lack of progress. at a point that we felt like we could judge completion, with an decided whether it was kept were broken. kept is pretty much you hear it, the promise has been substantially or completely fulfilled, broken, not fulfilled pretty trickier ones are compromise, to where there has been some progress, where there has been a partial achievement of the goal. ultimately these are judgment calls on our part, but they are made based on shoe leather reporting. our reporters spent hours on some of these promises, trying to figure out what happened, what is the budgeting, whatever. one of the things we heard from federal agencies was, you are the first reporter who has ever called us about that. that is testament to what washington journal is about -- what washington journalism is about. that there is less coverage of the federal agencies and of regulation, and so it really represents delving into an area where i think journalists should be digging more.
host: first up for bill adair is ashley in houston on the democrats line. hi, ashley. caller: my question was, as politifact started keeping these records since president obama was in office, or before? host: we started politifact in 2007, so that was too late to do it for the bush presidency, and the main focus of our work is our fact checking. this is kind of a side business for us. i wish that we could go back and compare it to previous presidents, not just president bush but all back in history. but given limited resources, we made an extraordinary effort here. host: ashley, are you still with us? caller: what are your thoughts be -- yes. host: what are your thoughts
about this? caller: well, it is nothing to compare it to. it would be very nice if we had something else to compare, and it seems to me since president obama has been president, we have had more fact checking than i have ever heard of, and i am in my 60's. i would like to hear something about some of the other presidents and how they perform in office. it seems to me that there is a lot going on that did not go on with other presidents. guest: i agree with you. i wish we had been around before 2007. one thing we had done, depending on your state, politifact has 10 state sites. some of them include florida, ohio, wisconsin, oregon, virginia, rhode island, new hampshire. in most of those states, we have similar features where we are following the campaign promises
of governors. we have the scott o'meara in florida, -- the scott-o-meter, which follows governor rick scott. it is a new form of accountability journalism, where we are taking the power of the web and using it in a new way to hold elected officials accountable. unfortunately, we cannot go back in time. host: here is a snapshot of politifact's website. we see senator marco rubio being examined. also, phil gingrey in georgia. saul, from new york, on the independent line. caller: since 2008, when john
mccain was running for president, republicans have been claiming that if they raise the capital gains taxes, which obama wanted to do, and dividends taxes 15%, that is going to hurt people and retirement plans. they have been scary people that way. elderly people right -- they have been scaring people that way. elie people right now, on their 401 k, everybody knows that when you take money out of the retirement plan, you pay ordinary income taxes. you don't get the 15% tax break that rich people get when they
have been outside the retirement plan. nobody has been saying anything about it. no news media, no politicians, no democrats. i would like to hear what he says about that. guest: sure, saul. we have done a lot of fact checks on claims about taxes, and i would interview to go to our website, politifact.com, and then under truth-o-meter -- if it is a factual claim, we will check it. where it gets tricky, two things in what you just said. one is opinions. we cannot fact check an opinion. if somebody says taxes are too high or taxes are not going to go up, those are often impossible to fact check. we will, however, check things about a claim about someone's plan, so we did a lot of checks during the 2012 campaign on claims that president obama made about mitt romney's plan, and claims that mitt romney
made about obama. we also have a search box on our side so you can look things up. if you have an iphone or android, we have a couple of mobile apps that can help you look things up like that. host: speaking of the archives at the c-span video library, let's go to some of the promises president obama made before he was elected to the presidency. this was a debate back on january 31, 2008, talking about health care. >> ted kennedy said he is confident that we will get universal health care, and he
guest: you are correct. but obama was referring to the early negotiations, which is what he had been critical of hillary clinton for. that he was cutting a deal with the pharmaceutical industry. those negotiations were behind closed doors and a lobbyist and key players from the healthcare industry. that was the part that he was referring to. that was definitely a promise that was roped in. -- that was broken. so much of the negotiations in congress occurred behind closed doors. they have opportunities were some of that comes out in the open. i can tell you that it does not
all out in the open. host: some other top promises that that was looked out by president obama or candidates involve the war in a raciraq, cg click on mowbray. --autonomous -- guantanamo bay. let's take a look. >>these consultations are now complete. i have chosen a timeline the combat brigades of 80 months. our common mission will regain.
it was long hair with the canada before the war. the promise that we rated was he will work with military commanders and a rock to end the war safely within 16 months. we read it that a promise kept in 2010 as well as the last combat troops in a rock-- iraw. -- iraq. there are things you can do to fulfil promises. we will have in our new promises his promise to end the operation afghanistan. the torture when you mention was a tougher one.
the shadow world is difficult to read what is a promise cupper broken. we have a cup of all of the evidence that we could broken. the torture had ended before president obama to notice. that was a promise kept. if we get evidence to the country a rating will change. we have done that many times. >host: restricting wiretaps, a compromise so far. caller: close in guantanamo bay was an interesting one. even though he had support from his party in both houses of congress. that was the one that he was not able to keep. there were enough democrats that
was opposed to that. caller: thank you for taking my call. i would ask to address mr. obama's promise that i think drew in so many young voters that he was going to be a great unifyer. he has set up to oppose the country and that basically 51% of american voters were for him. the other 49% of americans that voted for him feel like he is basically sticking his tongue at us and giving us the finger. i feel we were more polarized for us and i feel that as it promised or the broken end of public and to address that. host: as i was talking about earlier, there is a promise to that effect that we do have rating broken. the promise we just to represent
that was the pledge to bring both parties together to pass an agenda. as he said, there have not been success set up. it was a robust debate about who is to blame. antwrens of actions. i have not seen him stick of the tongue of a deburred anyone. there was still a polarized place. that was a promise broken. host: those who watch the opposition fight it for personal victory. and a time when people do not demand truth from representatives but here with the one to hear, it seems relevant. guest: this is the kind of journalism which should have
been practicing years ago. you hear this claims and you wonder, is that true. is he really going to do that? that is what we are all about. i think it is more relevant than ever. as we look back on 2012, 2012 was the year of the fact checker. fact checking mattered in many campaigns. i think it mattered in the presidential campaign. host: let's hear from selina. caller: good morning. my concern is when bill stated he cannot go back and check president bush. the debates are still around, things that have been said are still a run for president bush. i still believe the cannot go back into some of the fact check's concerning him. am i wrong about the? -- about that?
guest: it is about resources. polish the fact is part of st. petersburg for-- politifact is part that has been around for 5 years now. it takes skill reporters and it takes time to do things. to go back and do it for previous presidents, could it be done? somebody has to pay for that. as a news organization, we think it is more important to do the here and now. it would be great if somebody wanted to take our approach and go back in time. it would be a great historical value. as to somebody has to write a check. host: bill adair has worked in most instances 1997 and upon his work he is the author of the book, the" the mystery inside a crash investigation.
william, afrom republican. caller: i just want to know how you have him rated on that. host: what do you. to to prove that? caller: there are several different things. the immigration. appointments he made. but all relates to constitution. his presidential powers. he thinks he has, which he does not. there are a lot of things he has done. i just want to know how this guy did it. guest: this is a classic opinion. he simply cannot accept an opinion.
what we want to do is give -- basically empowered democracy and informed opinion. we will give you the facts about what congress has done and what laws would do, what the administration is doing or not doing and leave it up to you to have opinions like that. our whole goal with appellative fact is to empower democracy. -- with politifact is to empower democracy. caller: i want to commend you does for what you do. i read your articles every day for the past year or two. you have vegetated me. -- educated me. a lot of things i have heard that have come out of the
republican or conservative talk show hosts that criticize obama -- after reading your article, i found out that what -- right here on the rush limbaugh show was a lie. the whole situation, i found out the true fact by readin gyour article in our local paper. the whole true thing -- the whole solydnra thing started with the bush adminstration. the fast a furious thing. host:let's go to bill for a response. guest:thanks for the kind words. i am glad you are reading them we are trying to get our work out in different ways. we have partnershuips with
newspapers. they use the truth-o-meter. i am glad you are readin gour work and their work and happy our word is getting out. host: our caller but up solyndra, looking at the president's promises regarding energy. guest: a lot of that was included in the stimulus bill. a big grab bag, $77 billion of goodies that included many things foraenergy and the environment. i know that a lot were included in the economic stimulus bill. host: is president of?
making fewer promises that he was initially? -- is president obama making fewer promises than initially? guest: absolutely. the 2012 campaign was a campaign of attacks. when we look back at the moments of the campaign, as you look at the debates and what they were saying on the campaign trail of what they were saying in commercials, they spent so much of the time attacking each other. relatively little laying out their agenda in any detail. this was one of the hardest to fact check. mitt romney did not provide details about the tax plan. obama spent some time attacking mitt romney that there were just some many fewer promises made. there was less of an agenda. host:the score coard looks at 500 promises made by obama.
he has made progress on 73% of them. thank you for being here. that website is politifact.com. >> tomorrow, cheryl olson talks about violent video game and the effect on young people. john lott talked about the obama administration's efforts to reduce gun violence. diane oakley talks about retirement savings purposes and what that could mean in the later years. live at 7:00 eastern on c-span. next, press enter a not -- inauguration speeches from the last year's starting with ronald reagan, bill clinton and dwight eisenhower.
>> the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. this honor beacon's americans the chance to lead the world at last out of the valley of term oil and onto the high ground of peace that man has dreamed of since the dawn of civilization. >> making the benefits of scientific examinations and -- scientific advances for the improvement of undeveloped areas. story.ic radio's back live saturday morning at 11:00 eastern, part of three days of american history tv rights to inauguration day on c-span 3. >> in 1981, ronald reagan was
inaugurated. he had won the 1980 election against jimmy carter. a major issue in the campaign was the iran hostage crisis. as president reagan was giving his address, they were being released. this is about 25 minutes. [applause] >> governor, are you prepared to take the constitutional oath. raise your right hand and repeat after me. i robberies in do solemnly swear -- >> i,-- ronald reagan do solemnly swear -- >> that i will faithfully execute the office of president
>> the president of the united states. [applause] >> thank you. >> senator hatfield, mr. chief justice, mr. president, vice president bush, vice president o'neill, reverend moomaw, and my fellow citizens, to a few of us here today this is a solemn and most momentous occasion, and yet in the history of our nation it is a
commonplace occurrence. the orderly transfer of authority as called for in the constitution routinely takes place, as it has for almost two centuries, and few of us stop to think how unique we really are. in the eyes of many in the world, this every-4-year ceremony we accept as normal is nothing less than a miracle. mr. president, i want our fellow citizens to know how much you did to carry on this tradition. by your gracious cooperation in the transition process, you have shown a watching world that we are a united people pledged to maintaining a political system which guarantees individual liberty to a greater degree than any other, and i thank you and your people for all your help in maintaining the continuity which is the bulwark of our republic. the business of our nation goes forward.
these united states are confronted with an economic affliction of great proportions. we suffer from the longest and one of the worst sustained inflations in our national history. it distorts our economic decisions, penalizes thrift, and crushes the struggling young and the fixed-income elderly alike. it threatens to shatter the lives of millions of our people. idle industries have cast workers into unemployment, human misery, and personal indignity. those who do work are denied a fair return for their labor by a tax system which penalizes successful achievement and keeps us from maintaining full
productivity. but great as our tax burden is, it has not kept pace with public spending. for decades we have piled for decades we have piled deficit upon deficit, mortgaging our future and our children's future for the temporary convenience of the present. to continue this long trend is to guarantee tremendous social, cultural, political, and economic upheavals. you and i, as individuals, can, by borrowing, live beyond our means, but for only a limited period of time. why, then, should we think that collectively, as a nation, we're not bound by that same limitation? we must act today in order to preserve tomorrow. and let there be no misunderstanding -- we are going to begin to act, beginning today.
[applause] the economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades. they will not go away in days, weeks, or months, but they will go away. they will go away because we as americans have the capacity now, as we've had in the past, to do whatever needs to be done to preserve this last and greatest bastion of freedom. in this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem. [applause] from time to time we've been tempted to believe that society has become too complex to be managed by self-rule, that government by an elite group is superior to government for, by, and of the people.
well, if no one among us is capable of governing himself, then who among us has the capacity to govern someone else? all of us together, in and out of government, must bear the burden. the solutions we seek must be equitable, with no one group singled out to pay a higher price. we hear much of special interest groups. well, our concern must be for a special interest group that has been too long neglected. it knows no sectional boundaries or ethnic and racial divisions, and it crosses political party lines. it is made up of men and women who raise our food, patrol our streets, man our mines and factories, teach our children, keep our homes, and heal us when we're sick -- professionals, industrialists, shopkeepers,
clerks, cabbies, and truckdrivers. they are, in short, we the people, this breed called americans. well, this administration's objective will be a healthy, vigorous, growing economy that provides equal opportunities for all americans with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination. putting america back to work means putting all americans back to work. ending inflation means freeing all americans from the terror of runaway living costs. all must share in the productive work of this new beginning,' and all must share in the bounty of a revived economy. with the idealism and fair play which are the core of our system and our strength, we can have a strong and prosperous america, at peace with itself and the world. so, as we begin, let us take inventory.
we are a nation that has a government -- not the other way around. and this makes us special among the nations of the earth. our government has no power except that granted it by the people. it is time to check and reverse the growth of government, which shows signs of having grown beyond the consent of the governed. it is my intention to curb the size and influence of the federal establishment and to demand recognition of the distinction between the powers granted to the federal government and those reserved to the states or to the people. [applause] all of us need to be reminded that the federal government did not create the states, the states created the federal government.
now, so there will be no misunderstanding, it's not my intention to do away with government. it is rather to make it work -- work with us, not over us, to stand by our side, not ride on our back. government can and must provide opportunity, not smother it, foster productivity, not stifle it. if we look to the answer as to why for so many years we achieved so much, prospered as no other people on earth, it was because here in this land we unleashed the energy and individual genius of man to a greater extent than has ever been done before. freedom and the dignity of the individual have been more available and assured here than in any other place on earth.
the price for this freedom at times has been high, but we have never been unwilling to pay that price. it is no coincidence that our present troubles parallel and are proportionate to the intervention and intrusion in our lives that result from unnecessary and excessive growth of government. it is time for us to realize that we're too great a nation to limit ourselves to small dreams. we're not, as some would have us believe, doomed to an inevitable decline. i do not believe in a fate that will fall on us no matter what we do. i do believe in a fate that will fall on us if we do nothing. so, with all the creative energy at our command, let us begin an era of national renewal. let us renew our determination, our courage, and our strength. and let us renew our faith and
our hope. we have every right to dream heroic dreams. those who say that we're in a time when there are not heroes, they just don't know where to look. you can see heroes every day going in and out of factory gates. others, a handful in number, produce enough food to feed all of us and then the world beyond. you meet heroes across a counter, and they're on both sides of that counter. there are entrepreneurs with faith in themselves and faith in an idea who create new jobs, new wealth and opportunity. they're individuals and families whose taxes support the government and whose voluntary gifts support church, charity, culture, art, and education. their patriotism is quiet, but deep. their values sustain our
national life. now, i have used the words "they'' and "their'' in speaking of these heroes. i could say "you'' and "your,'' because i'm addressing the heroes of whom i speak -- you, the citizens of this blessed land. your dreams, your hopes, your goals are going to be the dreams, the hopes, and the goals of this administration, so help me god. [applause] we shall reflect the compassion that is so much a part of your makeup. how can we love our country and not love our countrymen, and loving them, reach out a hand when they fall, heal them when they're sick, and provide
opportunity to make them self- sufficient so they will be equal in fact and not just in theory? can we solve the problems confronting us? well, the answer is an unequivocal and emphatic "yes.'' to paraphrase winston churchill, i did not take the oath i've just taken with the intention of presiding over the dissolution of the world's strongest economy. in the days ahead i will propose removing the roadblocks that have slowed our economy and reduced productivity. steps will be taken aimed at restoring the balance between the various levels of government. progress may be slow, measured in inches and feet, not miles, but we will progress. it is time to reawaken this industrial giant, to get government back within its means, and to lighten our punitive tax burden. and these will be our first
priorities, and on these principles there will be no compromise. [applause] on the eve of our struggle for independence a man who might have been one of the greatest among the founding fathers, dr. joseph warren, president of the massachusetts congress, said to his fellow americans, "our country is in danger, but not to be despaired of. on you depend the fortunes of america. you are to decide the important questions upon which rests the happiness and the liberty of millions yet unborn. act worthy of yourselves." well, i believe we, the americans of today, are ready to act worthy of ourselves, ready to do what must be done to ensure happiness and liberty for ourselves, our children, and our children's children.
and as we renew ourselves here in our own land, we will be seen as having greater strength throughout the world. we will again be the exemplar of freedom and a beacon of hope for those who do not now have freedom. to those neighbors and allies who share our freedom, we will strengthen our historic ties and assure them of our support and firm commitment. we will match loyalty with loyalty. we will strive for mutually beneficial relations. we will not use our friendship to impose on their sovereignty, for our own sovereignty is not for sale. as for the enemies of freedom, those who are potential adversaries, they will be reminded that peace is the highest aspiration of the american people.
we will negotiate for it, sacrifice for it, we will not surrender for it, now or ever. [applause] our forbearance should never be misunderstood. our reluctance for conflict should not be misjudged as a failure of will. when action is required to preserve our national security, we will act. we will maintain sufficient strength to prevail if need be, knowing that if we do so we have the best chance of never having to use that strength. above all, we must realize that no arsenal or no weapon in the arsenals of the world is so formidable as the will and moral courage of free men and women.
it is a weapon our adversaries in today's world do not have. it is a weapon that we as americans do have. let that be understood by those who practice terrorism and prey upon their neighbors. [applause] i'm told that tens of thousands of prayer meetings are being held on this day, and for that i'm deeply grateful. we are a nation under god, and i believe god intended for us to be free. it would be fitting and good, i think, if on each inaugural day in future years it should be declared a day of prayer. this is the first time in our history that this ceremony has been held, as you've been told, on this west front of the capitol. standing here, one faces a magnificent vista, opening up on this city's special beauty and history.
at the end of this open mall are those shrines to the giants on whose shoulders we stand. directly in front of me, the monument to a monumental man, george washington, father of our country. a man of humility who came to greatness reluctantly. he led america out of revolutionary victory into infant nationhood. off to one side, the stately memorial to thomas jefferson. the declaration of independence flames with his eloquence. and then, beyond the reflecting pool, the dignified columns of the lincoln memorial. whoever would understand in his heart the meaning of america will find it in the life of abraham lincoln. beyond those monuments to heroism is the potomac river, and on the far shore the sloping hills of arlington national cemetery, with its row upon row
of simple white markers bearing crosses or stars of david. they add up to only a tiny fraction of the price that has been paid for our freedom. each one of those markers is a monument to the kind of hero i spoke of earlier. their lives ended in places called belleau wood, the argonne, omaha beach, salerno, and halfway around the world on guadalcanal, tarawa, pork chop hill, the chosin reservoir, and in a hundred rice paddies and jungles of a place called vietnam. under one such marker lies a young man, martin treptow, who left his job in a small town barbershop in 1917 to go to france with the famed rainbow division.
there, on the western front, he was killed trying to carry a message between battalions under heavy artillery fire. we're told that on his body was found a diary. on the flyleaf under the heading, "my pledge,'' he had written these words -- "america must win this war. therefore i will work, i will save, i will sacrifice, i will endure, i will fight cheerfully and do my utmost, as if the issue of the whole struggle depended on me alone.'' the crisis we are facing today does not require of us the kind of sacrifice that martin treptow and so many thousands of others were called upon to make. it does require, however, our best effort and our willingness to believe in ourselves and to
believe in our capacity to perform great deeds, to believe that together with god's help we can and will resolve the problems which now confront us. and after all, why shouldn't we believe that? we are americans. god bless you, and thank you. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] >> more now of the history of presidential inaugurations. here is a list of first inaugurations. the first ceremony with broadcasted live on the radio was with coolidge in 1925.
>> governor, are you ready to take the oath? >> i am. >> i, william jefferson clinton do swear that i will faithfully execute the office of resident of the united states. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. so help me god. >> congratulations. [cheers and applause] ♪
>> ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states of america. president clinton. [cheers and applause] >> my fellow citizens, today we celebrate the mystery of american renewal. this ceremony is held in the depth of winter, but by the words we speak and the faces we show the world, we force the spring, a spring reborn in the world's oldest democracy that brings forth the vision and courage to reinvent america.
when our founders boldly declared america's independence to the world and our purposes to the almighty, they knew that america, to endure, would have to change, not change for change's sake but change to preserve america's ideals -- life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness. though we marched to the music of our time, our mission is timeless. each generation of americans must define what it means to be an american. on behalf of our nation, i salute my predecessor, president bush, for his half-century of service to america.
[applause] and i thank the millions of men and women whose steadfastness and sacrifice triumphed over depression, fascism, and communism. today, a generation raised in the shadows of the cold war assumes new responsibilities in a world warmed by the sunshine of freedom but threatened still by ancient hatreds and new plagues. raised in unrivaled prosperity, we inherit an economy that is still the world's strongest but
is weakened by business failures, stagnant wages, increasing inequality, and deep divisions among our own people. when george washington first took the oath i have just sworn to uphold, news traveled slowly across the land by horseback and across the ocean by boat. now, the sights and sounds of this ceremony are broadcast instantaneously to billions around the world. communications and commerce are global. investment is mobile. technology is almost magical. and ambition for a better life is now universal. we earn our livelihood in america today in peaceful competition with people all across the earth. profound and powerful forces are shaking and remaking our world.
and the urgent question of our time is whether we can make change our friend and not our enemy. this new world has already enriched the lives of millions of americans who are able to compete and win in it. but when most people are working harder for less, when others cannot work at all, when the cost of health care devastates families and threatens to bankrupt our enterprises, great and small, when the fear of crime robs law-abiding citizens of their freedom, and when millions of poor children cannot even imagine the lives we are calling them to lead, we have not made change our friend. we know we have to face hard truths and take strong steps, but we have not done so, instead, we have drifted. and that drifting has eroded our resources, fractured our
economy, and shaken our confidence. though our challenges are fearsome, so are our strengths. americans have ever been a restless, questing, hopeful people. and we must bring to our task today the vision and will of those who came before us. from our revolution to the civil war, to the great depression, to the civil rights movement, our people have always mustered the determination to construct from these crises the pillars of our history. thomas jefferson believed that to preserve the very foundations of our nation, we would need dramatic change from time to time. well, my fellow americans, this is our time. let us embrace it.
our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. there is nothing wrong with america that cannot be cured by what is right with america. and so today we pledge an end to the era of deadlock and drift, and a new season of american renewal has begun. to renew america, we must be bold. we must do what no generation has had to do before. we must invest more in our own people, in their jobs, and in their future, and at the same time cut our massive debt. and we must do so in a world in which we must compete for every
opportunity. it will not be easy. it will require sacrifice, but it can be done and done fairly, not choosing sacrifice for its own sake but for our own sake. we must provide for our nation the way a family provides for its children. our founders saw themselves in the light of posterity. we can do no less. anyone who has ever watched a child's eyes wander into sleep knows what posterity is. posterity is the world to com, the world for whom we hold our ideals, from whom we have borrowed our planet, and to whom we bear sacred responsibility. we must do what america does best -- offer more opportunity to all and demand more responsibility from all. it is time to break the bad habit of expecting something for
nothing from our government or from each other. let us all take more responsibility not only for ourselves and our families but for our communities and our country. to renew america, we must revitalize our democracy. this beautiful capital, like every capital since the dawn of civilization, is often a place of intrigue and calculation. powerful people maneuver for position and worry endlessly about who is in and who is out, who is up and who is down, forgetting those people whose toil and sweat sends us here and pays our way. americans deserve better.
and in this city today there are people who want to do better. and so i say to all of you here let us resolve to reform our politics so that power and privilege no longer shout down the voice of the people. let us put aside personal advantage so that we can feel the pain and see the promise of america. let us resolve to make our government a place for what franklin roosevelt called bold, persistent experimentation, a government for our tomorrows, not our yesterdays. let us give this capital back to the people to whom it belongs. to renew america, we must meet challenges abroad as well as at home. there is no longer a clear
division between what is foreign and what is domestic. the world economy, the world environment, the world aids crisis, the world arms race -- they affect us all. today, as an older order passes, the new world is more free but less stable. communism's collapse has called forth old animosities and new dangers. clearly, america must continue to lead the world we did so much to make. while america rebuilds at home, we will not shrink from the challenges nor fail to seize the opportunities of this new world. together with our friends and allies, we will work to shape change, lest it engulf us. when our vital interests are challenged or the will and conscience of the international community is defied, we will act, with peaceful diplomacy whenever possible, with force when necessary.
the brave americans serving our nation today in the persian gulf, in somalia, and wherever else they stand are testament to our resolve. but our greatest strength is the power of our ideas, which are still new in many lands. across the world we see them embraced, and we rejoice. our hopes, our hearts, our hands are with those on every continent who are building democracy and freedom. their cause is america's cause. the american people have summoned the change we celebrate today. you have raised your voices in an unmistakable chorus. you have cast your votes in historic numbers. and you have changed the face of congress, the presidency, and the political process itself. yes, you, my fellow americans, have forced the spring.
now we must do the work the season demands. to that work i now turn with all the authority of my office. i ask the congress to join with me. but no president, no congress, no government can undertake this mission alone. my fellow americans, you, too, must play your part in our renewal. i challenge a new generation of young americans to a season of service -- to act on your idealism by helping troubled children, keeping company with those in need, reconnecting our torn communities. there is so much to be done, enough, indeed, for millions of others who are still young in spirit to give of themselves in service, too. in serving, we recognize a simple but powerful truth -- we need each other, and we must care for one another. today we do more than celebrate america.
we rededicate ourselves to the very idea of america, an idea born in revolution and renewed through two centuries of challenge, an idea tempered by the knowledge that, but for fate, we, the fortunate, and the unfortunate might have been each other, an idea ennobled by the faith that our nation can summon from its myriad diversity the deepest measure of unity, an idea infused with the conviction that america's long, heroic journey must go forever upward. and so, my fellow americans, as we stand at the edge of the 21st century, let us begin anew with energy and hope, with faith and discipline.
and let us work until our work is done. the scripture says, "and let us not be weary in well doing -- for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not." from this joyful mountaintop of celebration we hear a call to service in the valley. we have heard the trumpets. we have changed the guard. and now, each in our own way and with god's help, we must answer the call. thank you, and god bless you all. [applause]
part of that is because there was a tradition. though was a sort of for clerk that develop in washington. historians have been looking for verification that they did or did not say so help me god. we are not sure. years later, he remember that washington said "so help me god ." we do not know what happened at that stage. most presidents in the 19th century did not repeat the oath of office. they just said "i do" at the end. then president started to say "so help me god." the chief justice who swears swears them in says so help me
god. if you are going to a strict interpreter of the roles, it is not there. it has become tradition. tradition is much more important than constitutional structure in this process. >> now a portion of the inauguration of president eisenhower in 1957. like this year, the official inauguration date of january 20, 1957. he was sworn in private and then follow that with a public swearing in. ♪ >> do you dwight eisenhower
swear that you it faithfully execute the office of the united states and to the best of your ability preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states? >> i, dwight eisenhower swear that i will faithfully execute the office of the united states to the best of my ability to preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. >> so help you god. >> so help me god. [cheers and applause] >> give us we pray the power to discern clearly right from wrong and allow all our words
and actions to be governed by the laws of this land. we pray that our concern should be for all the people, regardless of station, race, or color. >> mr. chairman, mr. vice president, mr. chief justice, mr. speaker, members of my family and friends, my countrymen, and the friends of my country, wherever they may be, we meet again, as upon a like moment four years ago, and again you have witnessed my solemn oath of service to you. i, too, am a witness, today testifying in your name to the principles and purposes to which we, as a people, are pledged. before all else, we seek, upon
our common labor as a nation, the blessings of almighty god. and the hopes in our hearts fashion the deepest prayers of our whole people. may we pursue the right -- without self-righteousness. may we know unity -- without conformity. may we grow in strength -- without pride in self. may we, in our dealings with all peoples of the earth, ever speak truth and serve justice. and so shall america -- in the sight of all men of good will -- prove true to the honorable purposes that bind and rule us as a people in all this time of trial through which we pass.
we live in a land of plenty, but rarely has this earth known such peril as today. in our nation work and wealth abound. our population grows. commerce crowds our rivers and rails, our skies, harbors, and highways. our soil is fertile, our agriculture productive. the air rings with the song of our industry -- rolling mills and blast furnaces, dynamos, dams, and assembly lines -- the chorus of america the bountiful. this is our home -- yet this is not the whole of our world. for our world is where our full destiny lies -- with men, of all people, and all nations, who are or would be free. and for them -- and so for us -- this is no time of ease or of rest. >> the president waved at the
as the president waved to the crowd, they started to drive from the capital to the viewing stand in front of the white house. down on pennsylvania avenue, the inaugural parade is led by a platoon of mortar cycle police. the president in an open car waved to them all. people were cheering wildly. ♪ as the parade approaches the building, they turn up the street. the president is followed by these bikes. ♪
>> next we continue with a look at presidential inaugurations over the past 65 years. we will show you the inaugurations of harry truman, richard nixon, and john f. kennedy. harry truman was inaugurated as the 33rd president in 1949. he had served as president in 1945. he took office after fdr's debt. this is the first time in an operation was televised, live to the nation. this is about 20 minutes. ♪
>> inauguration day, washington. history is ready to begin. thousands lined pennsylvania avenue. more than half a million visitors flocked to washington on this festive inauguration day. since early morning, spectators were seen along the parade route. they were all honoring harry truman, elected president of the united states. harry truman, vice president elect appeared for the inaugural ceremony. harry truman is escorted by congressional representatives.
he will be taking his oath of office. in capital plaza, more than a half thousand -- more than a thousand people showed up and many more listened on the radio and watched on tv. the supreme court justices dissented on the platform. -- dissented on the platform. television cameras recorded the arrival. ♪ a member of congress has taken
his vice presidential oath of office. >> so help me god. [applause] >> then harry truman is sworn in by chief justice. >> raise your right hand. do you harry truman do solemnly swear -- >> i, harry truman, do solemnly swear. but i will faithfully execute the office of the united states. >> and will to the best of your ability. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> preserve and protect the constitution of the united states. >> preserve and protect the constitution of the united states. >> so help you god. >> so help me god.
[applause] >> the nation and the world, a solemn. >> mr. vice president, mr. chief justice, fellow citizens i accept with humility the honor which the american people have conferred upon me. i accept it with a resolve to do all that i can for the welfare of this nation and for the peace of the world. in performing the duties of my office, i need the help and the prayers of every one of you.we
believe that all men have a right and are created equal because they are created in the image of odd. -- god. we will not be moved from this phase. [applause] the american people desire for a world in which all nations and all peoples are free to govern themselves as they see fit and to achieve a decent life. above all else, people are determined to work for peace on earth and a just and lasting peace. based on genuine agreement by
equals. in the pursuit of these aims, the united states and other like-minded nations find themselves directly opposed by a regime with contrary aims and a totally different concept of life. that regime adheres to a false philosophy which purports to offer freedom, security, and greater opportunity to mankind. misled by that philosophy, many peoples have sacrificed their liberties only to learn to their sorrow that deceit and mockery, poverty and tyranny, are their reward. that false philosophy is communism. communism is based on the belief that man is so weak and inadequate that he is unable to govern himself, and therefore requires the rule of strong
masters. what leaders shall he follow? democracy is based on the conviction that man has the moral and intellectual capacity, as well as the inalienable right, to govern himself with reason and justice. communism subjects the government is charged with the responsibility of protecting the rights of the individual and his freedom and the exercise of those abilities of his. [applause]
the difference between communism and democracy do not concern the united states of old. people are coming to realize that human dignity and -- worship god. the united states has invested his substance and energy in our great concerted effort for freedoms of the world. we have imposed our will on non-. -- we have imposed our will on non-.
we have asked for no privileges we would not extend to others. we have constantly and vigorously supported the united nations and related agencies as a means of applying democratic principles to international relations. we are working to improve the standards of all the people. we are ready to undertake new projects in a free world. in the coming year, our program will emphasize more persons of action. we will continue to give support to the united nations. we'll continue to search for ways and increase their effectiveness.
second, we will continue our programs for world economic recovery. this means, first of all, that we must keep our full weight behind the european recovery program. third, we will strengthen freedom-loving nations against the dangers of aggression. fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas.our aim to help the free peoples of the world to their own effort for more clothing, more material for housing, and more mechanical power to lighten their burden. but vitalizing force and the
people of the world into triumphant action. in due time, as this comes manifest as more and more nations come to benefit from democracy and to participate, i believe that those countries will abandon their delusions and joined with the free nations of the world in a just settlement of international civility. [applause] we will advance for man's freedom and security. to that end we will devote our strength, our resources, and our
firmness of resolve. with god's help, the future of mankind will be assured in a world of justice, harmony, and peace. [applause] ♪ >> on the sparkling, chill day, he leaves to take his place in the parade. 17,000 marchers joined in the procession down pennsylvania avenue. ♪ heading the parade is the chief of staff. [cheers and applause]
then comes the president and vice president. flanking the chief executive is man of honor. he served as captain in the first world war. cabinet members include the secretary of state and attorney general of the united states. general eisenhower arrived. behind him marks the future generation. the grade of midshipmen of the u.s. naval academy.
-- the brigade next come the cadets of the united states coast guard academy. then of the marine corps march down the broad avenue, which today is a parade ground for every branch of the armed services. the flying boxcars lead one of the greatest error armadas over the capital. -- air armadas over the capital. giant beat 36 bombers passed overhead. the parade includes not only the military, but is a panorama of american life. the home state of missouri has
several displays. other floods the picks scenery of the states. and this is kentucky, the vice- president's home state. the state of texas followed moves down the avenue. -- float moves down the avenue. the district of columbia display depicts reconstructions of the capital and the washington monument. early american settlers that landed on the shore of the states. the figure of uncle sam strides down the avenue. labor organizations representing million of their members from
president and vice president stand together acknowledging their countrymen. a group of california cowboys salute president truman, and so does their pet dalmatian. another group presents the chief executive with a special gift, a brand new cowboy hat. the president is chaired by the citizens of lamar, missouri, the town he was born. group by group, people from each of the 48 states honor harry truman in his inauguration since george washington's, since george washington, nearly 140 years ago.
our web site will have added features including video feeds from the c-span and crews, and a visual blog of the behind the scenes at photographs all at c- span.org. now, president richard nixon's 1969 inauguration. he withdrew from the race and the democrats nominated the vice-president hubert humphrey. on election night, george wallace won in five states as an independent candidate running on a platform to end racial integration. richard nixon went on to beat hubert humphrey by one percentage point. this is about 20 minutes.
>> you, richard millhouse nixon do solemnly swear -- >> by richard millhouse nixon do solemnly swear -- >> you will faithfully execute the office -- >> that i will faithfully execute the office -- >> for president of the united states -- >> of president of the united states -- >> and will to the best of my ability -- >> and to the best of my ability -- >> preserve, protect, and defend -- >> the constitution of the united states -- >> the constitution of the united states -- >> so help you got it. -- >> so help me god. [applause]
>> senator dirksen, mr. chief justice, mr. vice president, president johnson, vice president humphrey, my fellow americans, and my fellow citizens of the world community, i ask you to share with me today the majesty of this moment. in the orderly transfer of power, we celebrate the unity that keeps us free. each moment in history is a
fleeting time, precious and unique. but some stand out as moments of beginning, in which courses are set that shape decades or centuries. this can be such a moment. forces now are converging that make possible, for the first time, the hope that many of man's deepest aspirations can at last be realized. the spiraling pace of change allows us to contemplate, within our own lifetime, advances that once would have taken centuries. in throwing wide the horizons of space, we have discovered new horizons on earth. for the first time, because the people of the world want peace, and the leaders of the world are afraid of war, the times are on the side of peace.
eight years from now america will celebrate its 200th anniversary as a nation. within the lifetime of most people now living, mankind will celebrate that great new year which comes only once in a thousand years -- the beginning of the third millennium. what kind of a nation we will be, what kind of a world we will live in, whether we shape the future in the image of our hopes, is ours to determine by our actions and our choices. the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. this honor now beckons america -- the chance to help lead the world at last out of the valley of turmoil and onto that high ground of peace that man has dreamed of since the dawn of civilization.
if we succeed, generations to come will say of us now living that we mastered our moment, that we helped make the world safe for mankind. this is our summons to greatness. i believe the american people are ready to answer this call. the second third of this century has been a time of proud achievement. we have made enormous strides in science and industry and agriculture. we have shared our wealth more broadly than ever. we have learned at last to manage a modern economy to assure its continued growth. we have given freedom new reach. we have begun to make its promise real for black as well as for white. we see the hope of tomorrow in the youth of today. i know america's youth. i believe in them. we can be proud that they are better educated, more committed, more passionately driven by conscience than any generation in our history.
no people has ever been so close to the achievement of a just and abundant society, or so possessed of the will to achieve it. and because our strengths are so great, we can afford to appraise our weaknesses with candor and to approach them with hope. standing in this same place a third of a century ago, franklin delano roosevelt addressed a nation ravaged by depression and gripped in fear. he could say in surveying the nation's troubles -- "they concern, thank god, only material things." our crisis today is in reverse. we find ourselves rich in
goods, but ragged in spirit, reaching with magnificent precision for the moon, but failing into raucous discord on earth. we are caught in war, wanting peace. we are torn by division, wanting unity. we see around us empty lives, wanting fulfillment. we see tasks that need doing, waiting for hands to do them. to a crisis of the spirit, we need an answer of the spirit. and to find that answer, we need only look within ourselves. when we listen to "the better angels of our nature," we find that they celebrate the simple things, the basic things -- such as goodness, decency, love, kindness. greatness comes in simple trappings.
the simple things are the ones most needed today if we are to surmount what divides us, and cement what unites us. to lower our voices would be a simple thing. in these difficult years, america has suffered from a fever of words, from inflated rhetoric that promises more than it can deliver, from angry rhetoric that fans discontents into hatreds, from bombastic rhetoric that postures instead of persuading. we cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another -- until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices. for its part, government will listen. we will strive to listen in new ways -- to the voices of quiet anguish, the voices that speak without words, the voices of the heart -- to the injured voices, the anxious voices, the voices that have despaired of being
heard. those who have been left out, we will try to bring in. those left behind, we will help to catch up. for all of our people, we will set as our goal the decent order that makes progress possible and our lives secure. as we reach toward our hopes, our task is to build on what has gone before -- not turning away from the old, but turning toward the new. in this past third of a century, government has passed more laws, spent more money, initiated more programs than in all our previous history. in pursuing our goals of full employment, better housing,
excellence in education, in rebuilding our cities and improving our rural areas, in protecting our environment and enhancing the quality of life -- in all these and more, we will and must press urgently forward. we shall plan now for the day when our wealth can be transferred from the destruction of war abroad to the urgent needs of our people at home. the american dream does not come to those who fall asleep. but we are approaching the limits of what government alone can do. our greatest need now is to reach beyond government, to enlist the legions of the concerned and the committed. what has to be done, has to be done by government and people together or it will not be done at all. the lesson of past agony is that without the people we can do nothing -- with the people we can do everything.
to match the magnitude of our tasks, we need the energies of our people -- enlisted not only in grand enterprises, but more importantly in those small, splendid efforts that make headlines in the neighborhood newspaper instead of the national journal. with these, we can build a great cathedral of the spirit -- each of us raising it one stone at a time, as he reaches out to his neighbor, helping, caring, doing. i do not offer a life of uninspiring ease. i do not call for a life of grim sacrifice. i ask you to join in a high adventure -- one as rich as humanity itself, and exciting as the times we live in. the essence of freedom is that each of us shares in the shaping
of his own destiny. until he has been part of a cause larger than himself, no man is truly whole. the way to fulfillment is in the use of our talents. we achieve nobility in the spirit that inspires that use. as we measure what can be done, we shall promise only what we know we can produce, but as we chart our goals, we shall be lifted by our dreams. no man can be fully free while his neighbor is not. to go forward at all is to go forward together. this means black and white together, as one nation, not two. the laws have caught up with our conscience. what remains is to give life to what is in the law -- to insure at last that as all are born equal in dignity before god, all are born equal in dignity
before man. as we learn to go forward together at home, let us also seek to go forward together with all mankind. let us take as our goal -- where peace is unknown, make it welcome, where peace is fragile, make it strong, where peace is temporary, make it permanent. after a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation. let all nations know that during this administration our lines of communication will be open. we seek an open world -- open to ideas, open to the exchange of goods and people -- a world in which no people, great or small, will live in angry
isolation. we cannot expect to make everyone our friend, but we can try to make no one our enemy. those who would be our adversaries, we invite to a peaceful competition -- not in conquering territory or extending dominion, but in enriching the life of man. as we explore the reaches of space, let us go to the new worlds together -- not as new worlds to be conquered, but as a new adventure to be shared. with those who are willing to join, let us cooperate to reduce the burden of arms, to strengthen the structure of peace, to lift up the poor and the hungry. but to all those who would be tempted by weakness, let us leave no doubt that we will be as strong as we need to be for as long as we need to be.
over the past 90 years, since i first came to this capital as a freshman congressman, i have visited most of the nations of the world. i have come to know the leaders of the world and the great forces, the hatreds, the fears that divide the world. i know that peace does not come through wishing for it -- that there is no substitute for days and even years of patient and prolonged diplomacy. i also know the people of the world. i have seen the hunger of a homeless child, the pain of a man wounded in battle, the grief of a mother who has lost her son. i know these have no ideology, no race. i know america.
i know the heart of america is good. i speak from my own heart, and the heart of my country, the deep concern we have for those who suffer and those who sorrow. i have taken an oath today in the presence of god and my countrymen to uphold and defend the constitution of the united states. to that oath i now add this sacred commitment -- i shall consecrate my office, my energies, and all the wisdom i can summon to the cause of peace among nations. let this message be heard by strong and weak alike -- the peace we seek the peace we seek to win -- is not victory over any other people, but the peace that comes "with healing in its wings", with compassion for those who have suffered, with understanding for those who have opposed us, with the opportunity for all the peoples of this earth to choose their
that voice so clear across the lunar distance, we heard them invoke god's blessing on its goodness. in that moment, their view from the moon moved poet archibald macleish to write -- "to see the earth as it truly is, small and blue and beautiful in that eternal silence where it floats, is to see ourselves as riders on the earth together, brothers on that bright loveliness in the eternal cold -- brothers who know now they are truly brothers." in that moment of surpassing technological triumph, men turned their thoughts toward home and humanity-seeing in that far perspective that man's destiny on earth is not divisible, telling us that however far we reach into the cosmos, our destiny lies not in the stars but on earth itself, in our own hands, in our own hearts.
we have endured a long night of the american spirit. but as our eyes catch the dimness of the first rays of dawn, let us not curse the remaining dark. let us gather the light. our destiny offers not the cup of despair, but the chalice of opportunity. so let us seize it not in fear, but in gladness, and "riders on the earth together," let us go forward, firm in our faith, steadfast in our purpose, cautious of the dangers, but sustained by our confidence in the will of god and the promise of man. [applause] >> now, john f. kennedy's
inauguration as the nation's 36 president. a snowstorm hit washington, d.c. on moscow the in the parade and other events to be canceled. 8 inches of snow fell and caused the most crippling traffic jam for its time. hundreds of cars were rude and others were abandoned. d.c. employees were to clear the parade route and even some went on as planned. here is the speech about 15 minutes.
>> to you solemnly swear that you will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states -- >> i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states -- >> and will to the best of your ability -- >> to the best of my ability -- >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states -- >> preserve protect and defend the constitution of the united states -- >> so help you god. >> so help me god. [applause] >> vice president johnson, mr. speaker, mr. chief justice,
president eisenhower, vice president nixon, president truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom -- symbolizing an end as well as a beginning -- signifying renewal as well as change. for i have sworn before you and almighty god the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three- quarters ago.
the world is very different now. for man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. and yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe -- the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of god. we dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of americans -- born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage -- and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we
are committed today at home and around the world. let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. this much we pledge -- and more. to those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. united there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. divided there is little we can do -- for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. to those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away
merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. we shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. but we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom -- and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside. to those people in the huts and
villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required -- not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. if a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. to our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge -- to convert our good words into good deeds -- in a new alliance for progress -- to assist free men and free
governments in casting off the chains of poverty. but this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the americas. and let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. to that world assembly of sovereign states, the united nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support -- to
prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective -- to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak -- and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run. finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request -- that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self- destruction. we dare not tempt them with weakness. for only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. but neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course -- both sides overburdened by
the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. so let us begin anew -- remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. let us never negotiate out of fear. but let us never fear to negotiate. let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.
let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms -- and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths and encourage the arts and commerce. let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of isaiah -- to "undo the heavy burdens, let the oppressed go free." and if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and
the weak secure and the peace preserved. all this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. but let us begin. in your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course.
since this country was founded, each generation of americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. the graves of young americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. now the trumpet summons us again -- not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need -- not as a call to battle, though embattled we are -- but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation" -- a struggle against the common enemies of man -- tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, north and south, east
and west, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? will you join in that historic effort? in the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. i do not shrink from this responsibility -- i welcome it. i do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. the energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it -- and the glow from that fire can truly
light the world. and so, my fellow americans -- ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country. [applause] my fellow citizens of the world -- ask not what america will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. finally, whether you are citizens of america or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. with a good conscience our only
sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking his blessing and his help, but knowing that here on earth god's work must truly be our own. >> will continue with our look at presidential inaugurations of the past 25 years. we continue with george h. w. bush, lyndon johnson, jimmy carter, and george w. bush.
>> by barack hussain obama do solemnly swear -- >> this weekend, president obama begins his second term. sunday the official swearing-in ceremony live before noon. it begins with a look back at the 2009 inaugural address at 10:30 a.m. eastern. monday, the soaring and at noon eastern at the u.s. capitol and other festivities including the capitol lunch and and the parade. all the coverage begins at 7:00 eastern time on c-span, c-span radio, and c-span.org. join the conversation by telephone, facebook, facebook.com/cspan and twitter. >> our web site will have added features including video feeds from the spin cruise, video on demand of the major events -- it
c-span crews, video on demand of the major events at c-span.org. president george h. the the bush was inaugurated on to the rate 20, 1989. he was ronald reagan's vice president ford two terms. president bush was one and using the same bible as george washington. this is about 25 minutes. >> i george herbert walker bush is always where -- >> i, george herbert walker bush, do solemnly swear -- >> i will faithfully execute the
office of president of the united states -- >> i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states -- >> and will to the best of my ability -- >> preserved protect the constitution of the united states -- >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states -- >> so help you god. >>so so help me god. ♪
earned a lasting place in our hearts and in our history. president reagan, on behalf of our nation, i thank you for the wonderful things that you have done for america. [applause] i have just repeated word for word the oath taken by george washington 200 years ago, and the bible on which i placed my hand is the bible on which he placed his.
it is right that the memory of washington be with us today, not only because this is our bicentennial inauguration, but because washington remains the father of our country. and he would, i think, be gladdened by this day, for today is the concrete expression of a stunning fact -- our continuity these 200 years since our government began. we meet on democracy's front porch, a good place to talk as neighbors and as friends. for this is a day when our nation is made whole, when our differences, for a moment, are suspended. and my first act as president is a prayer. i ask you to bow your heads -- heavenly father, we bow our heads and thank you for your love. accept our thanks for the peace that yields this day and the shared faith that makes its continuance likely. make us strong to do your work,
willing to heed and hear your will, and write on our hearts these words -- "use power to help people." for we are given power not to advance our own purposes, nor to make a great show in the world, nor a name. there is but one just use of power, and it is to serve people. help us to remember it, lord. amen. i come before you and assume the presidency at a moment rich with promise. we live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. for a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn, for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. the totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. a new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. there is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken.
there are times when the future seems thick as a fog, you sit and wait, hoping the mists will lift and reveal the right path. but this is a time when the future seems a door you can walk right through into a room called tomorrow. great nations of the world are moving toward democracy through the door to freedom.
men and women of the world move toward free markets through the door to prosperity. the people of the world agitate for free expression and free thought through the door to the moral and intellectual satisfactions that only liberty allows. we know what works -- freedom works. we know what's right -- freedom is right. we know how to secure a more just and prosperous life for man on earth -- through free markets, free speech, free elections, and the exercise of free will unhampered by the state. for the first time in this century, for the first time in perhaps all history, man does not have to invent a system by which to live. we don't have to talk late into the night about which form of
government is better. we don't have to wrest justice from the kings. we only have to summon it from within ourselves. we must act on what we know. i take as my guide the hope of a saint -- in crucial things, unity, in important things, diversity, in all things, generosity. america today is a proud, free nation, decent and civil, a place we cannot help but love. we know in our hearts, not loudly and proudly, but as a simple fact, that this country has meaning beyond what we see, and that our strength is a force for good. but have we changed as a nation even in our time? are we enthralled with material things, less appreciative of the nobility of work and sacrifice? my friends, we are not the sum of our possessions.
they are not the measure of our lives. in our hearts we know what matters. we cannot hope only to leave our children a bigger car, a bigger bank account. we must hope to give them a sense of what it means to be a loyal friend, a loving parent, a citizen who leaves his home, his neighborhood and town better than he found it. what do we want the men and women who work with us to say when we are no longer there? that we were more driven to succeed than anyone around us? or that we stopped to ask if a sick child had gotten better, and stayed a moment there to trade a word of friendship? no president, no government, can teach us to remember what is best in what we are. but if the man you have chosen to lead this government can help make a difference, if he
can celebrate the quieter, deeper successes that are made not of gold and silk, but of better hearts and finer souls, if he can do these things, then he must. america is never wholly herself unless she is engaged in high moral principle. we as a people have such a purpose today. it is to make kinder the face of the nation and gentler the face of the world. my friends, we have work to do. there are the homeless, lost and roaming. there are the children who have nothing, no love, no normalcy. there are those who cannot free themselves of enslavement to whatever addiction--drugs,
welfare, the demoralization that rules the slums. there is crime to be conquered, the rough crime of the streets. there are young women to be helped who are about to become mothers of children they can't care for and might not love. they need our care, our guidance, and our education, though we bless them for choosing life. the old solution, the old way, was to think that public money alone could end these problems. but we have learned that is not so. and in any case, our funds are low. we have a deficit to bring down. we have more will than wallet, but will is what we need. we will make the hard choices, looking at what we have and perhaps allocating it
differently, making our decisions based on honest need and prudent safety. and then we will do the wisest thing of all -- we will turn to the only resource we have that in times of need always grows-- the goodness and the courage of the american people. i am speaking of a new engagement in the lives of others, a new activism, hands- on and involved, that gets the job done. we must bring in the generations, harnessing the unused talent of the elderly and the unfocused energy of the young. for not only leadership is passed from generation to generation, but so is stewardship.
and the generation born after the second world war has come of age. i have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the nation, doing good. we will work hand in hand, encouraging, sometimes leading, sometimes being led, rewarding. we will work on this in the white house, in the cabinet agencies. i will go to the people and the programs that are the brighter points of light, and i will ask every member of my government to become involved. the old ideas are new again because they are not old, they are timeless -- duty, sacrifice, commitment, and a patriotism that finds its expression in taking part and pitching in. [applause]
we need a new engagement, too, between the executive and the congress. the challenges before us will be thrashed out with the house and the senate. we must bring the federal budget into balance. and we must ensure that america stands before the world united, strong, at peace, and fiscally sound. but, of course, things may be difficult. we need compromise, we have had dissension. we need harmony, we have had a chorus of discordant voices. for congress, too, has changed in our time. there has grown a certain divisiveness. we have seen the hard looks and heard the statements in which not each other's ideas are challenged, but each other's motives. and our great parties have too often been far apart and untrusting of each other.
it has been this way since vietnam. that war cleaves us still. but, friends, that war began in earnest a quarter of a century ago, and surely the statute of limitations has been reached. this is a fact -- the final lesson of vietnam is that no great nation can long afford to be sundered by a memory. a new breeze is blowing, and the old bipartisanship must be made new again. [applause] to my friends--and yes, i do mean friends--in the loyal opposition--and yes, i mean loyal -- i put out my hand.
i am putting out my hand to you, mr. speaker. i am putting out my hand to you mr. majority leader. for this is the thing -- this is the age of the offered hand. we can't turn back clocks, and i don't want to. but when our fathers were young, mr. speaker, our differences ended at the water's edge. and we don't wish to turn back time, but when our mothers were young, mr. majority leader, the congress and the executive were capable of working together to produce a budget on which this nation could live. let us negotiate soon and hard. but in the end, let us produce. the american people await action. they didn't send us here to bicker. they ask us to rise above the merely partisan. [applause]
>> i george walker bush do solemnly swear. >> that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. >> that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> and will to the best of my ability. >> preserve, prote, anefend the constitution of the united states. >> preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the united states. >> so help me god. >> so help me god. >> congratulations, mr. president. [playing "hail to e chief"]
>> thank you all. chief justice rehnquist, president carter, president bush, president clinton, distguished guests and my fellow citizens, the peaceful transfer of authority is rare in history. t common in our country. with a simple oath, we affirm old traditions and make new beginnings. as i begin, i thank president clinton for his service to our nation. and i thank vice president gore
for a contest conducted with spirit and ended with grace. i am honored and humbled to std re wre so many of america's leaders have come before me and so many will follow. we have a place, all of us, in a long story, a story we continue, but whose end we will not see. it is a story of a new world that became a friend and liberator of the old, the story of a slave-holding society that became a servant of freedom. the story of a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, to defend but not to conquer. it is the american story, a story of flawed and fallable people, united across t
generations by grand and enduring ideals. the grandest of these ideals is an unfolding american promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves the chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. americans are called to enact this promise in our lives and in our laws, and though our nation has sometimes halted and sometimes delayed, we must follow no other course. through much of the last century, america's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. our democratic faith is more than the creed of our country. it is the in-born hope of our
humanity, an ideal we carry but do not own, a trust we bear and pass along. even after nearly 225 years, we have a long way yet to travel. while many of our citizens prosper, others doubt the promise. even the justice of our own country, the ambitions of some americans are limited by failing schools and hidden prejudice and the circumstances of their birth, and sometimes our differences run so deep it seems we share a continent but not a country. we do not accept this, and we will not allow it. our unity, our union is the seous work of leaders and citizens and every generation, and this is my solemn pledge. i will work to build a single nation of justice and
opportunity. i know this is in our reach because we are guided by a power larger than ourselves who creates us equal in his image, and we are confident in principles that unite and lead us onward. america has never been united by blood or birth or soil. we are bound by ideals that move us beyond our back grounds, lift us above our interests, and teach us what it means to be citizens. every child must be taught these principles. every citizen must uphold them. and every immigrant by embracing these ideals makes our country more not less american.
today we affirm a new commitment to live out our nation's promise through civility, courage, compassion, and character. america at its best matches a commitment to principle with a concern for civility. a civil society demands from each ous goodwill and respect, fair dealing, and forgiveness. some seem to believe that our politics can afford to be petty because in a time of peace the stakes of our debates appear small, but the stakes for america are ner small. if our country does not lead the cause of freedom, it will not be led. if we do not turn the hearts of children toward knowledge and character, we will lose their gifts and undermine their
idealism. if we permit our economy to drift and decline, the vulnerable will suffer most. we must live up to the calling we share. civility is not a tactic or a sentiment. it is the determined choice of trust over cynicis of community over chaos. and this commitment, if we keep it, is a way to share an accomplishment. america at its best is also courageous. our national courage has been clear in times of depression and war, when defeating common dangers defined our common good. now we must choose if the example of our fathers and mothers will inspire us or condemn us. we must show courage in a time of blessing by confronting problems instead of passing them on to future generations.
together we will reclaim america's schools before ignorance and apathy claim more ung lives. we will reform social security and medicare, sparing our children from struggles we have the power to prevent. and we will reduce taxes to recover the momentum of our economy and reward the effort and enterprise of working americans. we will build our defenses beyond challenge lest weakness invite challenge. we will confront weapons of mass destction so that a new century ispare new horrors. the enemies of liberty in our country shouldake no mistake, america remains engaged in the world by history and by choice, shaping a balance of power that
favors freedom. we will defend our allies and our interests. we will show purpose without arrogance. we will meet aggression and bad faith with resolve and strength. and to all nations, we will speak for the values that gave our nation birth. america at its best is compassionate. in the quiet of american conscience, we know that deep, persistent poverty is unworthy of our nation's promise, and whatever our views of its cause, we can agree that cldreat risk are not at fault. abandonment and abuse are not acts of god. they are failures of love.
and the proliferation of prisons, however necessary, is no substitute for hope and order in our souls. where there is suffering, there is duty. americans in need are not strangers, they are citizens. not problems, but priorities. and all of us are diminished when any are hopeless. government has great respsibilities for public safety and public health, for civil rights and common schools. yet compassion is the work of a nation, not just a government, and some needs and hurtsre so ep, they will only respond to a mentor's touch or a pastor's prayer. church and charity, synagogue
and mosque, lend our communities their humanity, and they will have an honored place in our plans and in our laws. many in our country do not know the pain of poverty, but we can listen to those who d and i can pledge our nation to a goal. when we see that wounded traveler on the road to jericho, we will not pass to the other side. america at its best is a place where personal responsibility is valued and expected. encouraging responsibility is not a search for scapegoats. it is a call to conscience. and though it requires sacrifice, it brings a deeper fulfillment. we find the fullness of life not
only in options but in commitments, and we find that children and community are the commitments that set us free. our public interest depends on private character,n civic duty and family bonds and basic fairness, on uncounted, unhonored acts of decency which give direction to our freedom. sometimes in life we're called to do great things, but as the saint of our times has said, every day we are called to do small things with great love. mo important tasks of a democracy are done by everyone. i will live and lead by these principles to advance my convictions with civility, to pursue the public interest with courage, to speak for greater justice and compassion, to call for responsibility and try to
live it as well. in all these ways, i will bring the values of our history to the care of our times. what you do is as important as anything government does. i ask you to seek a commonood beyond your comfort, to defend needed reforms against easy attacks, to serve your nation beginning with your neighbor. i ask you to be citizens, citizens, not spectators, citizens, not subjects, responsible citizens building communities of service and a nation of character. americans are generous and strong and decent, not because we believe in ourselves, but because we hold beliefs beyond ourselves. when this spirit of citizenship is missing, noovernment
program can replace it. when this spirit is present, no wrong can stand against it. after the declaration of independence was signed, virginia statesman john paige wrote to thomas jefferson -- we know the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm? much time has passed since jefferson arrived for his inauguration. the years and changes accumulate, but the themes of this day he would know. our nation's grand story of courage and its simple dream of dignity, we are not the story's author who fills time and eternity with his purpose, yet his purpose is achieved in our duty, and our duty is fulfilled
in service to one another. never tiring, never yielding, never finishing. we renew that purpose today, to make our country more just and generous, to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life. this work continues the story goes on. and an angel still rid in the whirlwind and directs this storm. god bless you all, and godless america.
[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] we don't expect that from the u.s. congress. they have not evolved to meet this sort of situation so we have to face the new reality. much of the polarization is the external because of the people
that get elected. >> hi. coming from chicago, my question to you is, as you know, we are a nation separated by church and state. what are your thoughts of the bible and using the word god and history? >> not only did washington have a bible, we still use his bible for some inaugurations. but after his inauguration, the congress voted to have a church service and then went across to the chapel. there was argument because not everybody was episcopalian but they went ahead and went to it. would that be a violation of the first amendment? there wasn't a first amendment until 1889.
he was just going what he and his colleagues felt was appropriate on this occasion. presidents choose what to do in since franklin roosevelt, presidents have usually gone to a church service before their inauguration and it is personal to them. and they choose whatever bible to hold. just like members of congress will choose either a family bible or historical bible. there was thomas jefferson's copy of the kuran. hindus were sworn in in congress. for the first time it happened in last time in congress. so help me god is another issue. there is probably no problem with the president saying that,
but was the chief justice? i am sure every president would say that regardless of what the chief justice had to say. >> i attended miami dade college. my question to you is, what led you to be head historian and what is your favorite part about being one? >> i became a historian because i like political history. oral history is something i stumbled in to. i was writing a byeography of a man, and discovered to my surprise that he had done a very long oral history, 700 pages. the person i was writing about had been dead for 10 years and he had been telling me about his childhood, his life, and he left out any mention of his family. either his wife for the messy divorce. he did not mention his children or the income tax cases. that income tax case that sent
him to jail at the end of his life. i was able to verify pretty much everything he had said, but i needed to know more. they started interviewing his widow, his children, the person that prosecuted him, and i got to interview his psychiatrist. it changed the nature of my research and made my book much more interesting. in the long run. the senate created the historic office in 1975. one of the things they asked for was to create an oral history program. i have been doing oral history since the senate staff in 1976. explaining the arcane rules of the senate, sitting down with staff directors. those involved in crafting some major legislation and who can value 2008 various senators they worked with. and then i recently interviewed
a man that spent 22 years as a staff member. asking which was harder. been chief of staff was much harder because you wake up at 3:00 a.m. worrying about things when i was a senator, i had a chief of staff that was responsible for worrying for me. [laughter] >> so getting that information and then being able to put it out so others can use it. so using that which is a throw to me when i see a historian citing. we used a lot of interviews and i get a great sense of pride at any time i come across in ". i am glad it is there for people to use. so thank you for asking that. [applause] >> next, officials from the inauguration committee outline
plans for the public ceremony on monday. after that we'll show you some is inauguration speeches from the last 65 years. then your calls and comments on "washington journal." >> the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. this honor now beckens america. the chance to help lead the world at last out of the valley of turmoil and on to that high ground of piece that man has dreamed of since the dawn of civilization. >> we must embark on a bold new program, -- our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. >> this weekend on american history tv, public radio's back story with peter owna, andos will explore the traditions of
presidential inaugurations live at 11 a.m. eastern part of history tv on espn3. >> now some of the inauguration dave preparation and activities explained in a press conference wednesday by representatives of the joint committees and the u.s. capital police and the military. officials say the ceremonies will reflect the nation. this is about 45 minutes. >> ok. thank you. thank you, very much. thank you to the press club for hosting us today. to warn you this is going to be a little bit of a dance as we try to run through this chronologically, as you can imagine there's a lot often events that will be taking place my name is brent colburn, i am the communications director for the presidential inaugural committee, and we
aral involved in this really doing a lot of the public events that fall outside the official swearing in which matt can talk to. as i kind of think about this, it may make sense for us to do this non-chronologically and go this in sections. in fact, matt, do you want to walk through this and we'll do each side of it? the three main groups that really put this together is the pick and we represent the president and vice president's equities in this. we're a quasi governmental organization that stood up every four years to represent the president and vice president's views. we work with the inaugural balls and parades and some of the other events like the national day of service and the children's inaugural concert. there's another thing that is congress' official swearing in
pieces and then the j.t.s. which does the military piece of this. the colonel will talk about it from that standpoint and thank you to our law enforcement partners represented by the d.c. police department today. they represent a huge law enforcement fleans will be helping to keep us all safe over the next four or five days. with that, you want to talk about this, matt, and what you will be doing? >> good morning, my name is matt house. i'm the press secretary for the joint congressional committee on inaugural ceremonies, our per view is primarily everything that's happening on capitol hill on monday. there's staff involved that's been planning our activities for a year now and our inaugural activities begin the day the previous one ends. so our staff has been hard at
work preparing for monday. so i will talk about our theme for monday and then walk through the logistical preparations and then i will be happy to talk about other things. the theme was selected by chairman schumer and this marks the 150th year of the completion of the capital dome. the project began in the 1850's and stopped midway through when the civil war broke out and there was a question among congress and the president as to whether we could fight a civil war and finish the dome. president lincoln said if they see the capital go on it's a sign we intend union shall go on so congress found the money and were able to complete the capital dome in the midst of the war and senator schumer selected this theme knowing we
face challenges but if we look back to what we faced we can find faith that we can overcome the obstacles so it will be in some of the program materials that will be distributed to the felix that come to the capital to see the ceremonies, and you will see anytime various elements throughout program. we begin at 9:00 a.m. when the members head to the white house for a coffee and tea with the president. senator mcconnell also joins that group. from there, there's a coffee with the president, the vice president, the first lady and joe biden as well. then everybody starts to make their way back to the capital at 10:00 or 10:30 depending on how coffee and tea proceeds. our members come and they get there a few minutes ahead of the president and will greet the president and president schumer as they come in from the capital at about 10:407 and
then everyone goes into the capital and we start the procession out with dignitaries, former presidents and the v.i.p.'s are announced on theplasm and proceeds for about 30 minutes when the president is introduced on to the platform. president schumer opens with a few remarks and then brent will talk about how the program proceeds from there. for folks coming to the mall or coming with the tickets to the west front, we will be opening the doors at 7:00 a.m. and we've advised everyone to make sure they are there by 9:30 to make sure everyone is gone through screening and to their place in time to see the festivities. we have a number of crowd strategies to improve on some of the systems that were in place last time to prevent some of the issues folks experienced getting into the ceremonies, and i'm happy to speak to that
during the q & a session. we have planned for many, many months for crowds of all sizes and we think we have prepared for everyone who has a ticket to be able to see the ceremonies. back to brent. >> thank you, matt. just to complete a little bit about what the monday portion will look like at the capital. obviously president schumer will welcome us and then a traditional kind of run of show for the inauguration day for the ceremonial swearing in on monday. vice president biden will be administered the oath of justice and senior sotomayor will swear him in with the bible used by vice president biden and used throughout his
swearing in as senator. james taylor will sing "america the beautiful" after which president obama will be administered the oath of office to be done like it was four years ago and to be done by supreme court justice roberts. the first was the lincoln bible used by the president four years ago and the same bible used by president lincoln when he was sworn in in 1861 on top of the king family bible which has been graciously provided for this ceremony by the king family. excuse me, kelly clarkson will then sing "my country 'tis of thee" then a pome -- a poem written specifically for this occasion. the youngest ever inaugural poet and first glbt inaugural
poet and latino poet. then overseeing the st. john's service will be offering the benediction and the servicewill end with beyonce singing the national anthem. obviously these are very short bibles and symbolic bibles as we head into the 150th anniversary of the emancipation proclamation and the 30th anniversary of the march on washington, d.c. with that i would like to hand it over to our partners at j.t.f. and what will take place after the lunch matt discussed. >> thank you. as i said, i'm colonel michele roberts from the national task region and our task force has the responsibility for planning and coordinating the military support for the faugral
activities. once the luncheon is complete, the president and first lady and vice president and second lady will be escorted to the east front of the capital where they will be greeted and he will escort them down the steps to take what's called the review which is the presidential escort unit comprised of nearly 380 service members followed by each of the service honor guards and the u.s. army band ads well as the marine corps band. and they will go past the president's location on the steps of the east front of the capital and once they complete the paxon review then the presidential escort, they fall into the motorcade and then they start the parade route. now along the parade route we
have approximately 2,300 military personnel participating in the parade. there are approximately 0,000 total personnel in the parade. and the way the parade is organized, there are five divisions in this parade. each division is led by a service component. so this is one that will be led by the army. division ii by the marines, division iii by the navy. division four by the air force and division five by a mixture of the coast guard and the her chant marines. essentially it's comprised of military bands, service elements that represent the active reserves and national guard components and then followed by various civilian groups that have applied to be included in the parade. along the entire parade route is the military corden.
that corden is comprised of approximately 1,500 service members from all services. for the activities at the capital, we have approximately 800 military service members there performing various functions from the presidential escort to the bands and herald trumpets and the presidential salute battery and as well as usualers and military assistants. sure. it's michele with two l's, middle initial l and roberts. i'm army. >> and colonel roberts, really, you know, did not give the j.t.f. enough credit they really do for this. it's not just the parade pieces. there are people that work on this inaugural day preparing
for whomever is eck elected and as someone who participated in the nag ral for president obama four years ago i can tell you the folks there regardless of who the chair is and the folks at j.t.f. are there ready for you when you walk into the door and really do a lot of the logistical events and as the colonel mentioned along with all of these military elements, there are 58 different groups. 58 different groups, floats and vehicles from all 50 states. they are everything from the virginia military institute just across the river in southern virginia which is -- which has marched in a number of inaugural parades, one of my favorites is a group from maine, ewan cyclists. i believe they are called -- the jim dandies being spelled
gym in this case. so they will pass in front of the white house. the president will stop and stand and watch the entire review andy joy the parade with the thousands that will watch from the parade route. once that tends president goes inside and the official part of his day is done and he gets ready for the inaugural balls. as you have seen reported there are two inaugural balls, the first is the commander in chief ball. again, the commander in chief's ball was one started by george bush that we have continued as our chance to hanour partners in the military and i know j.t.n. has been included in the process for the individuals that will be attended and that is enlisted personnel from the branches and i'm more than
happy to be to the answer questions about that inaugural ball as we get a bit into the q & a portion. i wanted to invite our partners from the capital police to talk about the security not just for monday but for the entire weekend of activities. >> good morning, everyone. my name is officer shh nell and i will definitely spell my name for you. first name, s-h-e-l-l- last name artuo -- i am the -- shennell antrobus. public information officer for the -- i'm an officer.
no worries. the united states capital police. our responsibility in conjunction with our law enforcement partner sincere to ensure the safety of those attending the inaugural ceremonies throughout the weekend. first and foremost we want everyone to enjoy the democratic process and this historic day. with any event that occurs on the capital complex, safety is our number one priority. that said, safety and security for guests, etc. is carried out not just by us but by partnership with our community including but not little bitted to the capital police and secret service and public safety entities. the partnership that we have established to create a pretty robust, multifaceted security plan has been in the works for
many months and while i cannot go into detail about the security plans, please know that we have trained extensively to address any issues that maycom up during the day. thank you. >> thank you, officer. appreciate that. and as someone that did security communications before heading back to the campaign last year, i can tell you during the q & a thester will have the easiest job, because he will be able to stay i can't answer that, more than anybody else. couple of other events i wanted to highlight throughout the weekend. saturday is a big day for us. two traditions that were started in 2009 by the first family, the national day of service and the kids inaugural children's concert. the national day of service will be taking place across the country and a large event down on the mall. we were excited yesterday to announce chelsea clinton has
joined us as the honorary cochair for the service and will be appearing at the mall tent that you've seen if you have driven down 14th street including eva longoria and ben foles who i'm excited about from my time in college and as well as 100 organizations from all across the capital region and folks will be able to go down and talk to these people as a fair-type atmosphere, learn more about how they can serve and continue to serve in their communities moving forward. we will also have events in all 50 states. right now we're on track for over 2,000 events across the country and they have paid for staff in all 50 states because it's a priority of the first family to see this service day both to honor the memory of martin luther king junior and as a tradition we hope will
live on past the inaugural and move forward regardless of who is in office. then the kids inaugural children's concert a tradition started in 2009 by dr. biden and first lady, michele obama and an extension of their work they have done through their initiative to help honor and support military families. this will take place at the convention center which is also where both balls will take place. we've put on an initial list of talent that will be appearing at both the balls on monday night and the kids concert or one another and as you can imagine this is a logistical list to get a all pieced together as a puzzle and we hope by friday to announce what acts will be appearing in which places. again, this is a great place to honor the sacrifice not just of the men and women that serve every day but of the families
that support them. on tuesday, jumping ahead of what we just discussed or past what we just discussed, there will also be the prayer service taking place and the first and second family will attend and again this is a tra tchation is most inaugurals will be announcing the running of the shows and the president will attend. it will be a nice day to cap off the four days of public celebration. i think that's everything we've got in terms of the run of show. i'm sure you all have a number of questions. just making sure i didn't miss anything in the number of events that we cover. i think that's about it. so more than happy to open up to questions and i would be remiss if i didn't say thank you to all our partners ads well as our law enforcement partners and capital police and secret service who have done a
fantastic job working with all of us. >> one temperature of housekeeping. if i recognize you ask a question, please identify your name and what news organization you represent. starting in the front. yes? >> you mentioned you hoped to have something of an improvement in security and things for monday obviously it's important that the public get in but i think here we're more concerned with media and i know networks missed air due to lines even at 3:00 a.m. and 4:00 a.m. in the morning. can we expect improvement in that. ? >> yes. there will be better flow for everyone inside and out and we will be issuing media guidelines in the next days outlining individuals credentialed for the event and
everyone should be on the same page as far as where folks can and cannot go and we're also creating accommodations to folks interested in broadcasting on sunday. so i think we've got a good plan in place and folks should get where they need to go. >> if i can add to that on the public side we do have the advantage of having done this four years ago from the presidential committee side and a lot of steps we took were trying to learn from some of the challenges of last time and the two balls into the convention center when four years ago i think they were spread out over forfour or five locations and we tried decrease our foot print and make this more manageable for everyone. so our hope is the flow in and out of the ceremony as well as the other activities will be
helpful and they put on an online tool a mobile webpage and web a.p. that matt can speak more to but will have more to do with what's going on here. but it is part of our effort to be sure people across the country can be involved in this event and has a lot of information on the day of service i talked about and we have logistical information for people attending the event and we are using twitter and social media tools that will make this as smooth as possible and put in a plug for j.t.f. that has a fantastic show of their efforts and shows how we're using social media to not only make this an enriching event but easier enjoyable event. >> i wonder if you can address what the price tag is for all
of the preparations and in addition to the hispanic people involved with this, any other hispanic celebrities or national leaders who will be joining the celebrations over the four days? >> sure. >> i'll defer on the cost issue, as you can imagine there are a number of individual groups and organizations and entities so after attaining the -- so ascertaining before the event is difficult so it would be better to speak to it after the event and everything is tallied up. as far as the event, this is an event that really reflects america. you will see a number of groups not just from the hispanic community but from across the country and we can get that full list of participants that show not just our geographic diversity but also the diversity of cultures and
communities that make up this country. as we mentioned this inaugural poet for the first time will be a an hispanic and cuban american and the benediction is also given by a cuban american at the official event and you will see a number of celebrities attending. eva longoria was a big supporter of the president during the campaign, and i think you will see looking up at the official d.s. that it really does reflect the country. >> and to that point as far as the latino participation, we dent get into the luncheon but senator schumer invited the rev rend luis cortez who foundedes pa ransa and has done no such grow -- so senator schumer
invited him to open the luncheon with a prayer in recognition of his long history of service. >> if i would just really quick, this doesn't speak to the hispanic american community but in shuffling my notes, i did miss the fact that we wanted to make sure everyone knew that merely evers williams who is the widow of slain civil rights effort will help in the kicking off the event that looks back at the history of our country and forward to where the president wants to take us as a country. so we think that will be a nice way to open the event and show towards the civil rights momentum in the president's life and in the country's life. >> my name is -- i just wanted
to know how many -- are coming. and if there is a list for that and -- [inaudible] >> foreign dignitaries? >> from our stand point i think we are still finalizing the list of those individuals who will attend. traditionally the diplomatic core has been seated on the platform. there are about 1,600 guests seated on the platform including the president and his party and vice president and his family and guests and the governors, house, senate, supreme court, joint chiefs and diplomatic core will be there so typically it's knot of 450, but we'll have more on that in the coming days. >> the question is for mr. colburn. there's been questions raised as far as the transparency of
your organization. can you address them? >> yes. the committee, according to f.e.c. regulations has to file 90 days after the inaugural takes place. that will include all information on donors and again, it's unique to the committee and a carve out of the -- we are also providing a list of donors on a weekly basis and we believe this is above and beyond what's requested of our transparency. >> excuse me. i said at the beginning i didn't want follow-up questions, because we want to give even a chance. yes, ma'am? >> what was your goal and where are you at today? >> we have been not discussing the goal publicly but i can tell you we are on track to meet it and have every comfort
we will have every resource we need to put on the plans. >> can you give us specific numbers? >> i'm not going to get into specific numbers. >> you have not told us anything about the presidents' day on sunday. you talked a little bit about the official swearing in and what else will he do that day and what will he do for the day of service? and -- >> i don't know to a number of those so i don't know where bruce spring accident scene, but at this point he is not part of the talent lineup, so i'm not sure where the boss will or won't be. in terms of the presidents' day on sunday, again, this is a schedule that's much more driven by our partners at the white house so there will be questions that will fall to them. when it falls on a sunday, the ceremonial piece is traditionally walked through on monday. that being said, according to
the constitution he has to be sworn in on january by january 20 at noon so that will be pooled press so it will be available for the american people to see and will be in the blue room from what i understand. the president will walk in and chief justice roberts will be there to administer the oath and will be using the robinson family for that and this is the first lady's family bible. he will do the oath and that will be a pretty quick, official, but very important ceremony. and the vice president will do the same thing earlier that day. the only reason they are doing it that day is because of scheduling and that will be at the vice president's resident again with the immediate family . he will be sworn in on the biden family bible that day. it will be the same one he used four years ago and between those two they will be doing a replaying at arlington a wreath
laying. this is different from the traditional wreath layings but much more low key affair similar to the one they did four years ago and it will be the two of them going as citizens to they wreath and mark the importance of those who have given their lives for this country as we get ready on monday. as of now this is the only things i know as far as their schedule. both the bidens and obamas will participate on saturday in some sort of service activity here in the metro area and we also have a number of cabinet officials and we will be making announcements on that. as you know those who have covered the president, odds are they will be doing something that will be the entire family. >> a follow-up on the
fundraising question, if you do have leftover funds where do you planned to use those snunds >> you know, i can honestly say i don't know and i know there are rules that regulate what we can and can't do with those funds. in the past i know funds were used that were left over last time to help do repairs on the national mall. that's a bridge we will cross when we come to it but there are a number of civic-minded things if we're lucky enough to have excess funds when all is said and done. >> how many law enforcement agencies and officers will be involved in the security on the day of the inauguration? and also how large of an area will be closed off with street closures? >> first to start out with the one, it was morning when it was actually afternoon but to answer your question, we cannot go into detail as far as how
many law enforcement officers will be present for the inauguration. and can you repeat your second question for me? >> -- how large of an area will be closed off? >> we do have road closures in effect and i can touch base with you afterwards to provide you with those. >> with all events that happened -- that happen on the capital complex, we train to address them as far as specific threats, i can't answer that right now, but just know that myself -- not myself, excuse me, the united states capital police in partner with our partners have trained to address any issues that maycom up.
>> two logistical questions. one, there's credentials for roaming outside the mall where does that get you that you can't get as a member of the public going on to the mall and second, how are we getting off the mall across pennsylvania avenue after the ceremony before the parade starts if pennsylvania is locked down. does everybody have to go around the capital and around the lincoln memorial again? >> yes. this will be a not a super satisfying answer but we have an entire them concentrates specifically on media logistics and i know that was an issue last year so in terms of both the access, we can follow up with you afterwards and put you in touch with the right folks. >> and just a logistical question, what's your best guess for the running time of
the ceremony start to finish and parade route start to finish? >> i can handle the ceremony portion of it. we expect that the announcements on the platform, former presidents will begin around 11:00. it will take about 30 points in announce everyone that will be seated on the platform. senator schumer opens the ceremony at 11:30. we expect the president will take his oath around noon and there will be -- beyonce immediately after that to wrap things up an then final musical act and the procession will head back inside and we hope to have everyone back inside. the music begins at the preprogram at 9:30 in the morning and other v.i.p.'s and past presidents will begin heading out at 9:45 in the morning. after the inaugural speech and the performances at the end the president will head back in.
>> yes. that's right. >> we hope to have everyone heading back in off the platform. >> i can speak to that. so i also just love the idea of any show that opens with chuck schumer and closes with beyonce. that will be a rare event but the parade, this is a more traditional size parade. four years ago it was particularly long. we definitely wanted to keep it under three hours. we're aiming for 2 1/2 but these things can change based on weather and other events. this parade is a little bit different from what you may see in the macy's thanksgiving day parade. this is a moving parade. this is important for planning purposes for media, there is obviously the presidential escort that goes with the limos
down pennsylvania avenue to the white house. there's a short break between that and what we consider the actual parade begins so the president and first family can go inside and come to the review ising stand. but for the first elements of the parade. >> colonel, you can probably speak to that best. >> as you can imagine for all the participants in the parade with approximately 10,000 participants, it's a huge logistical dance that happens. primarily staging is going to happen at the pentagon parking lot. they will go through secret service screenings and get everybody lined up in the proper formation so that the five divisions are clear and everybody's in the correct order. and then there are actually logistical teams assigned to
each division so that everybody gets on and once they get fast white house reviewing stand there's different dispersal areas designated for each of the elements so they can get past and go past without sort of log jamming things behind. >> towards the white house from the capital? >> right. >> and again, then the start of the parade is about 2:30? >> about that time. yes. >> i was wondering if you could talk about weather contingency plans in case you wake up and there's a foot of snow on the ground. >> we do have a weather contingency plan. it's going to be similar to the inauguration the last time this happened was president regan's second inaugural.
the ceremonies would be moved into the row turneda. that's a decision they would make sunday afternoon so everyone has time to adjust and make plans. the only thing i would add to that is our goal instead ofthis event go forward. that being said, we're not going to put anyone in harm's way. so the real driver on that decision making process will be public safety. as you all know they were here four years ago. cold doesn't seem to slow us down so we'll deal with that as it comes up. each element of this outside of the actual swearing in really are just traditions that are important to the president or first family or country to really show what our transition of democracy is all about. so our hope is to be able to move forward with as many of these events as possible, regardless of what the weather is. >> on the fundraising issue,
why the reversal from four years ago as far as giving the balance and more transparency from each done center george w. bush actually gave amount from each donor ahead of time. so what decision was made to change that -- donor's requested or could you raise more money by keeping the amounts off? >> to be honest none of those were the considerations. my understanding is we just kind of, you know, each one of these is created anew every four years and are not continuations of committees from four years ago. we're lucky some of us were asked to do it from the last time. given the fact that there is the requirement that it be public, this was our attempt to go above and beyond that and add a level of transparency. >> over the weekend and on
monday, are there telephone numbers we can call if we need to check up on something, maybe an arrest or something untoward? who is going to be available to answer phone calls? >> ma'am, one more time your question? >> over the weekend and on monday if we need to check on anything that has happened out of the ordinary, maybe an arrest or something we need to check up on that we are not present to see? >> you can probably call me, i am the public information officer for the capitol police, so i would be the person. i'll talk to you afterwards. just get with me afterwards. i will get that to you. >> a lot of people here may be needing that number. fair question. 202-224-1677. >> couple other things on that, just useful resources.
as you pick up your credentials, there will be a media guide which is current as of when it went to print last thursday. we're still slaves to -- there will be a website 2013pic.org which will be updated with information since it went to print. much like the other large national events like super bowl or other eventuals that the secret service coordinates with local and federal and police departments, there will be a joint information center set up for issues and i'm sure they will be staffed. but most of that information should be in the media guide. >> i've gotten a number of questions as far as when the media guide will be available. the joint congressional committee will be publishing and there will be a lot of
background information you will see at the ceremony. it's going to have an anticipated and projected and on those words, timeline for the ceremony itself is always subject to change based on what happens on monday. but we anticipate that and the flow of events and all the details of that in our media guide should be puck lick later this afternoon and in the morning. it will be at inaugural.senate.gov, and i will make sure everyone here has an email with an exact link as soon as we get that out. >> how big the crowd that you are expecting that might come through this event and also could it be easier logistically than in 2009? the short -- >> the short answer on that the committee doesn't do crowd protections or crowd counts. this will be more in line with traditional inaugurals in terms
of size and crowd. four years ago obviously was an particularly historic event. you tend to get larger crowds when there's a change in power and the president being the first african-american president created a lot of interest. so we're very excited about this event. we think there's a lot of thumb around this event and from a logistical standpoint, we hope it will be logistically as smooth as possible and a number of folks who have been working very hard to make it as smooth as possible. that being said, we do beg folks' patience. the weather could be cold. do be prepared to be outside and work with us to make this as smooth an event as possible. >> in terms of media participation how many requests did you receive and how many did you actually give out?
>> i don't have a specific number, but it's thousands. this is one of the most well-covered event and it's of national significance not just of significance here in the united states. so we have thousands of media organizations apply for credentials and we can -- we really want this to be as public an event as possible and an event people here in the united states and around the world can really join in as a symbol of what this country is all about. >> this question, there's a lot of interest in how many tickets were made available for the parade and particularly in light of what one critic on the hill can say as being seen as -- how many were actually available? >> i can't give a specific percentage but i can tell you the part that makes up the ball tickets.
a certain percentage were given for the public. traditionally there's not a public sale. obviously this is a chance for us to say thank you to folks that have supported the president including some staff members and folks that contributed to the president's campaign but also volunteers who have worked hard to make sure tickets were made available for purchase to thousands of our volunteers as a way to say thank you. and the commander in chief's ball was started by george w. bush and one president obama felt we should continue and one of his favorite parts of the entire inaugural weekend and it will be twice the size it was last time so there will be thousands of members of the armed forces that will be attending this event. we wish we had more tickets but we have done the best we can to
strike a good and fair balance with the size of the event and the size of the tickets. >> a couple more questions. is there anyone that hasn't asked a question? yes? please. >> the kids concert, you mentioned about half of the audience will be made up of military kids. is that a ticketed event? >> that is a ticketed event. it will include the majority of military families so the other half will be parents there and other armed forces representatives and we also do make. i have the details handy madal tickets available to d.c. public schools for those who worked with the white house on various initiatives over the past four years and it is a ticketed event and it will be at the convention center but it's free of charge to the military families and the d.c. school kids. >> on the other ball, the
non-military ball, how many people will ben attending that? and one of your advisories called it open press. what do you mean by open press? because i thought that we all had to have secret service credentials to cover that. >> our term means you could have applied for a credential, they are given out on a space basis. there will be a full riser like you would see at a speech the president were giving. terms of the size, we don't have exact numbers but some of that we will be using as much of the capacity of the convention center as possible and again, last time we had 10 official balls. this time there are two, it's not in terms of number of participants. we had six that were hosted just at the convention center last time so we're doing two in the space we did six last time. the main reason is one of the
lessons we learned is by spreading out our talent we were not able to program it in the way we would have wanted so you can imagine you went to one ball and you might see one or two acts. this way we confer a full program for the attendees. really if you're there you will get a much richer experience and it will help us with crowd flow issues. so i don't know if that answers your questions. >> all of these events, and it's standard procedure for presidential events, everything has to be credentialed for security purposes. >> auerbach panel has agreed to stay and answer questions informally after the news conference, and on behalf of the national press club, i want to thank them for coming, especially during such a busy week and i want to thank those who joined us for today's press conference.
thank you. >> next, we'll show you some presidential inauguration speeches from the past 65 years. then live at 7:00 a.m., your calls and comments on "washington journal." >> i, barack hussein obama do solemnly swear that i will execute the office of president to the united states faithfully. -- faithfully the office of the president of the united states faithfully. >> when chief justice john roberts administered the oath
to barack obama on january 20 of 2009, there was a major problem. roberts was supposed to say that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states. so then barack obama stops, paused, smiled as if to say, come on, man. this is my big day. you got to get this right! but unfortunately, he didn't get it right, so the very next night in the white house, they did it again. this time roberts used notes which he hadn't used the first time, and they got it right. >> jim walked through the history of democracy's big day. monday at 8:00 a.m. eastern the book featuring president obama, congress and martin luther king jr., part of a three-day holiday weekend on c-span 2's book tv. c-span. created by america's cable
companies in 1979 brought to you as a public service. >> in 1981, ronald regan was inaugurated as the u.s.'s 40th president. former california governor had won the election against the incumbent president, jimmy carter. the iran hostage crisis where 52 americans were held for days after a group of militants took over the u.s. ambassador in iran. this is about 25 minutes. as he was giving his speech, the hostages were being released. >> governor, are you prepared to take the constitutional oath? >> i am. >> place your hand on the bible